A Associação "Trilhos d'Esplendor" com sede na Praia de Quiaios, Figueira da Foz, pretende fazer em caminhadas guiadas uma descrição fotográfica da Flora da Serra da Boa Viagem e das Dunas de Mira, Gândara e Gafanhas. Também mostramos o uso fito-terapêutico desta Flora cujo valor na medicina tradicional é bem conhecido na população local. São todos convidados para descobrir a beleza florística desta terra. Visitem uma das regiões mais importantes de biodiversidade de Portugal!

Download of PDFs (2 Volumes - Eds. 2014):

"Polunin - Flowers of South-West Europe - revisited" (Vol. I - Introdução - 371 pp.) (->Download)

"Polunin - Flowers of South-West Europe - revisited" (Vol. II - Portugal - 1559 pp.) (-> Download)

(contains Web links to Flora-On for observed plant species, Web links to high resolution Google satellite-maps (JPG) of plant-hunting regions from the Iberian peninsula; illustrated text in Portuguese language)


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Flora da Serra da Boa Viagem - Folha de Cálculo - > 500 Taxa - > 5000 Fotografias, Scans e Chaves

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terça-feira, 10 de setembro de 2013

2.13.2c1 - Serra da Estrela - Florestas




“Flowers of South-West Europe - a field guide” - de Oleg Polunin e B.E. Smythies


“Revisitas” de regiões  esquecidas no tempo - “Plant Hunting Regions” - a partir de uma obra de grande valor para o especialista e amador de botânica como da Natureza em geral.


Por
Horst Engels, Cecilia Sousa, Luísa Diniz, Nicole Engels, José Saraiva, Victor Rito
da
Associação “Trilhos d’Esplendor”


2.13 The Northern Serras of Portugal



2.13 As Serras do Norte de Portugal
2.13.2 Serra da Estrela
      1. Geografia, Clima, Geologia, Geomorfologia e Solos
      2. Bioclima, Biogeografia, Vegetação actual e potential
      3. Zona de Baixa Altitude (meso-temperada e meso-medetirrânica)
      1. Zona de Média Altitude (supra temperada e supra-mediterrânica)
      2. Zona de Alta Altitude (oro-temperada)
    1. Os Habitats da Serra da Estrela
      1. Ambientes rochosos
      2. Habitats rurais
    2. “Cultural Landscapes of Europe” - Serra da Estrela, uma paisagem tradicional
      1. Mudança climática e sucessão vegetational no Holocénico
      2. Acção antropogénica e degradação florestal no Holocénico
      3. Um modelo para a gestão da Serra da Estrela
    3. A Fauna da Serra da Estrela
      1. Observação de Aves na Serra da Estrela
      1. O Sítio Estrela
      2. Lista dos Habitats
      3. Introdução à Bioclimática
      4. Introdução à Biogeografia
      5. Introdução à Fitossociologia
Folha de Cálculo: Flora da Serra da Estrela
(Lista provisória de plantas vasculares e não-vasculares)
Bases de Dados:
Mapas das Serras do Norte de Portugal:

2.13.2 Serra da Estrela (post c1)



Os Habitats da Serra da Estrela


A divisão da área da da Serra da Estrela em zonas (pisos) de altitude perante critérios bioclimáticos (veja o post anterior) permitiu estabelecer 3 zonas de baixa, média e alta Altitude. Nestas 3 zonas distinguem-se (Jan Jansen, 2002) [1] no mínimo 5 variantes bioclimáticas diferentes: Meso-Temperado, Meso-Mediterrânico, Supra-Temperado, Supra-Mediterrânico e Oro-Temperado. Estas zonas bioclimáticas determinam junto com outros factores, por exemplo edáficos, a occorência de comunidades fitossociológicas e das diferentes espécies.




Fig. 1 - Zonação altitudinal e variantes bioclimáticas
na Serra da Estrela (From: Jan Jansen, 2002)


Se pretendemos entender melhor quais são os factores ecológicos limitantes das comunidades e das espécies na Serra da Estrela, temos de tomar em conta quais os habitats que aí ocorrem. A conservação de espécies de animais e plantas só se torna possível se os habitats que estas precisam são protegidos e conservados. É por isso que numa conservação actual das espécies atribui-se prioridade à conservação dos habitats.


No entanto, a influência do Homem na modelação de uma paisagem, e com isso também dos habitats que nela ocorrem, é outro factor na piramide de um sistema dinâmico como o de uma paisagem, ainda acima do nível dos habitats, que tem de ser tomado em conta. É por isso que se torna necessário reconstruir historicamente como as paisagens e ecossistemas foram transformados em paisagens antropogénicas actuais.


E é por isso que à seguir à este artigo - que foca a importância da conservação dos habitats na Serra da Estrela, vamos ainda analizar e tentar reconstruir quais os impactos antropogénicos (actividades do Homem) que transformaram a Serra da Estrela  numa “paisagem cultural”  num processo que durou milénios e que continua a acontecer hoje em dia. Só com esta informação na íntegra vai ser possível criar um modelo de gestão para uma futura gestão biogenética e eco-socionómica desta serra.


As Florestas da Serra da Estrela
A floresta da Serra da Estrela é objeto de muitos debates e polémicas. Há quem defende que na zona alta de Altitude, no planalto da serra, nunca houve floresta. Mas os indícios palinológicos não sustentam esta hipótese.
… From palynological records it can be concluded that an Iberian variety of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. iberica ) once existed in the upper belt of the Serra da Estrela. It is not known whether some small bushes or extended forests were concerned. It seems that the species already disappeared before the beginning of the Holocene period, some 10,000 years ago. Nowadays the only indigenous population of this tree species in Portugal occurs in the Serra do Gerês. In the eastern part of the Central Cordillera (Sierra de Guadarrama) forests predominated by Pinus sylvestris var. iberica still occur at high altitudes. The undergrowth in Spain is formed by Dwarf juniper Juniperus communis subsp. alpina) scrub, which is comparable to the present climax scrub of the Serra da Estrela (see chapter 3). Scots pine trees that now grow in the Estrela are non-indigenous species that have been planted by the forestry. Yellow Bird 's nest or Dutchman 's pipe Monotropa hypopitys) is a rare species that may have been a former constituent of the native pine forests. It is a short herb, totally lacking chlorophyll, living saprophytically on leaf mould. Nowadays it is a rare species in damp coniferous plantations in the middle belt .




Circo de Peñalara, Serra da Guadarrama - Exemplares de Pinus sylvestris na imagem




Monotropa hypopitys




Lagoa Serrano, perto do planalto da Serra da Estrela




Diagrama polínico do ‘Charco da Candiera’ (From: J.S. Carrión, 2012)




Lagoa Comprida, Serra da Estrela




Diagrama polínico da ‘Lagoa Comprida’ (From: J.S. Carrión, 2012)


Mesmo nos andares mais baixos a florestação da Serra da Estrela tem sofrido muito pela acção antropogénica que começou a aumentar há mais do que 5000 anos de tal forma que pelo menos para algumas partes da serra ela tornou-se o factor dominante para a deflorastação.
A primeira deflorestação maciça tem de ter começado há mais do que 3000 anos. Desda aí, as queimas, a transformação dos terrenos em pastos e campos para agro-silvicultura e pastoreio, e outras tranformações antropogénicas começaram a mudar as paisagens da Serra da Estrela. Também a introdução de espécies não-autóctonas contribuiu para esta transformação.
Hoje restam apenas algumas pequenas áreas de floresta natural ou semi-natural. Assim a maioria das comunidades climax foram substituidas numa regressão por comunidades de substituição, formando assim séries de vegetação (veja o anexo: Conceitos Fundamentais de Biogeografia).


No âmbito destas diferentes séries de vegetação podemos distinguir séries climácticas, séries que são determinadas prioritariamente pelo clima, e séries edafo-climácticas, em que as condições do solo são mais ou igualmente importantes.
Exemplos de sérias climáticas são as florestas climácticas dos carvalhos (Quercus), tanto caducifólias como perenifólias, carvalhos autóctones que foram cortados e queimados para proveito da madeira e transformação das áreas em pastos para desenvolvimento de sistemas de agro-pastoris.


Florestas naturais de  Carvalho- roble (Quercus robur) (habitat 9230pt1) não se encontram hoje na Serra da Estrela. Existem exemplares únicos em diversos sítios apenas. Assume-se que florestas de carvalho-roble foram florestas abundantes, sobretudo no sector Beirense Litoral (na parte occidental da serra) incluindo a Serra da Lousã e do Açor e o andar meso-Temperado da Serra da Estrela (Fig. 1),  antes da deflorestação ter tido o seu início.


Nowadays no Pedunculate oak forests are known in the area. Only some specimens of the Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) occur here and there in areas with relative strong oceanic influence in the middle belt. One example is a huge monumental specimen in front of the Capela da Senhora dos Verdes in Manteigas. Has it been conserved as a sacred tree or has it been merely saved because under its crown can be found shelter from sun or rain?
Once Pedunculate oak forests with evergreen elements must have had optimal occurrence in the subsector Beirense Litoral which slightly embraces the western piedmont area of the Serra da Estrela. The remarkable assemblage of temperate woodland species and evergreen elements must have lent these forests a luxurious appearance. It is assumed that following the variations of the climate (Glacials and Interglacials), mediterranean and temperate species could migrate and mix in western Beira Baixa because in contrast to other areas there was no significant east west oriented mountain chain that prevented such a shift. For instance during the last ice ages (Glacials) many species in Central Europe could not migrate fast enough southwards over the Pyrenees or the Alps and as a result they became extinct.
In North-America most of the mountain ranges are north south oriented. It is generally assumed that this is the reason why so many different oak and pine species occur in that part of the world.


Outra espécie importante de Quercus da Península Ibérica é o carvalho-negral (Quercus pyrenaica) (habitat 9230pt2). O carvalho-negral tem o seu otimo à seguir ao ao carvalho-roble no andar supra-Temperado, e tem o seu limite de distribuição em cerca 1800 m NN de altitude. O querco-negral tem sido substituido frequentemente por castanheiros, Castanea sativa, por causa do valor que esta última espécie tem na alimentação e da qualidade superior da madeira. No entanto, felizmente crescem muitas das espécies da floresta nativa também no sub-bosque das plantações de castanheiros.




Quercus pyrenaica e Prunus cerasus à 700 m NN de altitude na N339 de
Seia para Sabugueiro, Serra da Estrela




Castanea sativa  e Quercus pyrenaica à 700 m NN de altitude na N339 de
Seia para Sabugueiro, Serra da Estrela


Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) is a deciduous tree with typical woolly-haired twigs and large leaves which are densely woolly beneath and deeply cut into narrow acute lobes. Its range stretches from western France lip to Northwest Morocco with optimal occurrence in the Iberian Peninsula in areas with high precipitation (mainly mountains). Pyrenean oak forests have often been replaced by Sweet chestnut plantations because of the latter's additional source of food and supply of better timber. Fortunately many of the native forest species also thrive in the understorey of chestnut groves.
It is assumed that in the Estrela various kinds of Pyrenean oak forests have occurred in the past. Nowadays only small and degraded relict stands occur, making it difficult to assess the types concerned. The forests must have been best developed in the middle belt. In sheltered situations they may have mounted over 1.700 m. So far the highest record of a small Pyrenean oak tree is at about 1.850 m.


O sobreiro (Quercus suber) (Habitats 9330) e a azinheira (Quercus (ilex) rotundifolia) (Habitat 9340) são espécies perenifólias, bem adaptadas ao período seco de verão do clima mediterrânico. Quercus suber e Quercus rotundifolia aparecem nas zonas altitudinais dos bioclimas meso-mediterrânico e supra-mediterrânico, sobretudo nas encostas sul-este da Serra da Estrela. Quercus suber aparece em áreas com humidade e pluviosidade elevada e é mais termófilo e higrófilo do que as azinheiras; por isso a azinheira tem uma distribuição menos restrita do que o sobreiro. Como o sobreiro é uma árvore que tem usos variados, ela é estimada pelo homem e não desapareceu tanto como as outras espécies. As florestas de azinheira desapareceram praticamente na Serra da Estrela. Exemplares ou manchas arbustivas desta espécie encontram-se sobretudo nas zonas de baixa e média altitude no sul-este da serra. A azinheira da Serra da Estrela pertence à subespécie Quercus (ilex) rotundifolia que tem frutos (bolotas) doces; Quercus (ilex) ilex com frutos (bolotas) amargos tem uma distribuição mais para este na Península Ibérica e chega até aos Bálcãs no Leste do Mediterrânico.


… The evergreen sclerophyllous Cork oak (Quercus suber) and Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) are both well adapted to summer drought, so typically for the Mediterranean macroclimate. Cork oak forests are usually more thermophile and hygrophile than Holm oak forests. This explains why Cork oaks occur optimally at the foot of the mountain in areas with high precipitation . In drier climates Cork oaks may occur under humid soil conditions. Holm oaks have fewer requirements and therefore a wider range. Cork oaks are useful trees, reason why they have not totally disappeared. Exploited and therefore protected they may be found growing close to farmhouses. Some stands can be ob served in the southern and north-eastern piedmont areas of the Serra da Estrela. These remnants have probably belonged to the group of Cork oak forest series occurring in the phytogeographical Luso-Extremadurensean subprovince, which reaches the eastern parts of the Estrela massif. A characteristic species of such climax woodlands is Sanguisorba hybrida.
Within the Park Holm oaks have their major distribution in the eastern parts, from the lower to the middle belt. The Holm oak forests have almost disappeared. In general merely shrubs occur, but a few small forests do exist, mostly in areas with difficult access. Examples can be found in the Vale das Cortes, Vale de Beijames, Vale de Sameiro, Vale do Mondego, especially in the area between Senhora de Assedasse and Quinta da Taberna, the area around the Cabeço da Mestra Brava and at relative high altitudes near the Toje peak in the Serra da Alvoaça. The aforementioned stands are remnants of forests that most probably resembled the Holm oak forests from the Luso-Extremadurensean subprovince. A characteristic species of such climax woodlands is Pyrus bourgaeana, a pear tree that is native in Nw-Africa and the western part of the Iberian Peninsula. In general there are two Holm oak species: Quercus rotundifolia and Quercus ilex. Quercus rotundifolia is restricted to the Iberian Peninsula. Quercus ilex has a more eastern distribution. It is native in Spain, France, Italy and parts of the Balkans. All the Holm oak trees in the Park refer to Quercus rotundifolia. ...


Também as bétulas (Betula celtiberica) (Habitats 9380, 9580 e 91E0) da Serra da Estrela desapareceram quase por completo, ou foram substituidas ou hibridizadas com outras espécies não-autoctonas.


...There is some confusion about the identification of various Birch (Betula) species. The forestry introduced quite some Birch trees of different origin. Some of them include Downy birch (Betula pubescens) and several hybrids. The original species can be attributed to Betula celtiberica. Only very few specimens of Betula celtiberica can still be found in places with difficult access, e.g , near cliffs (sheltered from sun, fire and goats). The natural Birch forests probably occurred in the rainiest areas, often on humid soils, with preference for the higher parts of the middle belt. In sheltered situations they transgraded probably into the upper belt. From these edapho-climatic forests only a few scattered trees are left. The fringe of Birch forests in the Estrela must have been formed by broom scrub predominated by Genista florida (see chapter 3). Perhaps under a relative open canopy some of the following species would have grown there: Dawny leopard's-bane (Doronicum pubescens). Henrique's great wood-rush (Luzula sylvatica subsp. henriquesii). St Patrick's-cabbage (Saxifraga spathularis), Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Crepis lampsanoides, Allium scorzonerifolium, Alpine leek (Allium victorialis) and White hellebore (Veratrum album). Both Allium species are now found in open but shady environments often next to frequent irrigated rocks. Most of the aforementioned species call up associations with tall forb vegetation from Scandinavia and high mountains. The Mediterranean influence in the Estrela is, certainly in the absence of a shady tree layer, too large to permit such luxurious vegetation. Moreover the altitude is too low to supply enough snow, from which during the vegetation season enough water can be drawn. However, such vegetation does exist in the higher parts of the Cordilheira Central in Spain. The forest service planted a considerable number of (non-local) Birch trees at several locations. One of these stands is at the famous pick-nick site of Covão da Ametade. Other stands are situated along the road to Nave de Santo Antonio and in the area north of the Mondeguinho.
Only seedlings or juveniles from strict indigenous specimens should be used for plantation in Par areas. It would be great if in all major Park areas of Portugal plant nurseries would be set up in order to grow strictly indigenous tree species for plantation aims….





 
Covão d’Ametade, Vale do Zêzere, Serra da Estrela




Covão d’Ametade, Vale do Zêzere, Serra da Estrela


Aqui mais umas impressões fotográficas do Covão da Ametade (Covão d’Ametade) onde foi recentemente reaberto um Parque de Campismo semi-selvagem, aberto durante todo o ano. Pode apreciar-se a beleza deste sítio no campismo tanto no verão como no inverno - quando o Covão da Ametade estará com cobertura de neve.




3905 - Bétulas no Covão d’Ametade, Vale do Zêzere




3974 - Bloco de granito no Covão d’Ametade




3976 - Prehistória? :)




3977 - Vista para a garganta entre o Cântaro Raso - 1916 m NN (esquerda)
e o Cântaro Magro - 1928 m NN (direita)




3981-Vista para a garganta entre o Cântaro Raso - 1916 m NN (esquerda)
e o Cântaro Magro - 1928 m NN (direita)




3986 - Vista em direção do Cântaro Gordo - 1875 m NN




3988 - Vista em direção ao Cântaro Gordo - 1875 m NN




3989 - Pedras de granito com liquens no riacho seco do Covão d’Ametade




3995 - Vista para uma encosta com giestas
do Covão dÁmetade que ardeu uns anos atrás




3998 - Represa de água secada no Covão d’Ametade




4002 - Campanulácea (Campanula herminii) no Covão d’Ametade




4010 Covão da Ametade - paisagem com bétulas




4011 - Bar do Parque de Campismo no Covão d’Ametade




4013 Quadro explicativo - Covão da Ametade




Quadro explicativo - Covão d’Ametade




Betula spec. no Covão da Ametade, Serra da Estrela


Florestas de coníferos sofreram o mesmo destino como as florestas de caducifólios e perenifólias e foram destruidas ou seriamente transformadas,  sobretudo com a introdução de espécies não-autóctonas.  
No entanto, uma espécie conífera pertencente a família Taxaceae na ordem das Pinales (Coniferales) que sobreviveu em poucas pequenas manchas ou com árvores singulares, é a floresta dos teixos (Taxus baccata) (Habitat 9580). Assuma-se que o teixo formou antigamente florestas naturais na Serra da Estrela. O teixo encontra-se em solos húmidos e ao pé de riachos no andar médio e acompanha frequentemente as bétulas que também necessitam deste ambiente húmido.




A Barroca dos Teixos, Serra da Estrela




Flores masculinos de Taxus baccata (From: Wikipedia)




“Fruto” (cone) com arilo carnoso de Taxus baccata (From: Wikipedia)




Rebentos de Taxus baccata (From Wikipedia)




Raíz de Taxus baccata (From: Wikipedia)


Taxus baccata


…  It is assumed that once Yew (Taxus baccata) forests occurred. There are hardly any Yew trees left and now at the best some clumped specimens can be found. Some may even having been planted. Yew forests are not well understood. There may he interference with Holly for ests (sec 2.1.3).
Taxus seems to find its optimal conditions on humid slopes, mostly along rivulets in the middle belt. Protection of these sites and undisturbed development may reveal the true character of Yew forests.
Yew trees can be found in the Vale de Zezere near Covão d'Amctade and near Fonte Paulo Luís Martins, Vale da Candieira, Garganta de Loriga, south of Penha dos Abutres near Cerro do Terroeiro, north of Rodeio Grande, Ribeira da Lagoa, Vale do Conde, and Poco do Inferno. ….


Também as florestas edafo-climáticas de galerias ao longo de ribeiras e em terrenos húmidos sofream o mesmo destino como as florestas e espécies anteriores. Assim ficaram apenas algumas galerias naturais de amiero (Alnus glutinosa) (Habitat 91E0), Fraxinus angustifolia (Habitat 91B0) e salgueiro (Salix sp.) (Habitat 91A0 e outros) ao longo das ribeiras.


Alnus glutinosa


… Alder forests are edapho-hygrophilous climax forests predominated by Alder (Alnus glutinosa). They occur along the river s in the lower and medium belt . mostly on even ground and gentle slopes with deep and humid alluvial soils. Nowadays only degraded formations occur. As mentioned before their quasi disappearance is mainly the consequence of the rich ness and moisture of the soils. which make them suitable for hay meadows or horticultural exploitations. Competition with introduced tree species is another threat. Some exotic tree species, due to their strong regenerative force (e.g. Ailanthus altissima), started to appear subspontaneously outside the plantations occupying potential areas for riparian forests. This can be mainly observed in the western part of the Park.


Mostly depending on altitude two types of Alder stands exist: a relative species-poor one with Galium broterianum at higher altitudes. and a relative species-rich one with Balm-leaved figwort (Scrophularia scorodonia) and other species like Royal fern (Osmunda regalis) and Common vine (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris) at lower altitudes. The Subspecies sylvestris is a native species with small bluish-black acid fruits, and usually 3 seeds. The subspecies vinifera has larger fruits that are sweet and vary in colour. with 2 or no seeds. It is the hybrid-cultivated form used for wine making. Alder contributes to a higher nutrient level of the soil. Its roots have buds in which bacteria (Actinomyces alni) grow that in symbiosis with the tree are able to fix nitrogen from the air.

Narrow-leaved Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) may be present in the tree layer. but in contrast to Alder it prefers higher situated places that are not waterlogged all year. In open and degraded formations willow species like Salix atrocinerea, Salix salviifolia and their hybrid (Salix x secalliana) often predominate. Willows are usually found in places where sometimes high currents may occur. These softwood species have a strong regenerative capacity. Such is a good adaptation to the strong erosive action of the rivers. which may turn into mighty torrents after heavy rainfall. The Weeping willow (Salix babylonica) is sometimes used as an ornamental tree. It is naturalised and now it can be sparsely found among the native willows. In the riparian forests there are quite some mosses and ferns, tall herbs, sprawlers, climbers and sub shrubs such as Brambles (Rubus spp.). Characteristic species of sedge tussocks frequently occur such as an Iberian endemic Subspecies of the Tufted sedge (Carex elata subsp. reuteriana), a specific Bedstraw (Galium broterianum) and the Hemlock water dropwort (Oenanthe crocata). Examples of Alder forests can be found along the Ribeira do Freixo near Freixo da Serra, along the Mondego river between Videmonte and Vila Soeiro and beyond, along the Ribeira do Caldeirão and along the Alva river. ...






 


Osmunda regalis, Serra da Lousã




Osmunda regalis, Serra da Lousã
(Panícula bem visível)


Fraxinus angustifolia


…Once Narrow-leaved Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) forests must have occurred from the lower to the middle belt along most of the watercourses in the area. Nowadays only small patches remained. These small stands are found on gentle to relative steep slopes on soils with an alternate water table. A major part of the potential area of Narrow-leaved ash is occupied by meadows (see chapter 4), Narrow-leaved ash is frequently accompanied by Pyrenean oak. Rare tree species are Black poplar (Populus nigra). Betula celtibérica and Small-leaved Elm (Ulmus minor), Species such as Large lords-and-ladies (Arum itaticum), White bryony (Bryonia dioica), Elm-leaved Bramble (Rubus ulmifolius). Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), and many others may be spotted. A very rare Speedwell, Veronica micrantha, was once observed in this type or woodland. Examples of Narrow-leaved ash stands can be found in the surroundings of Freixo da Serra (Freixo is Portuguese for Ash ), Corujeira, and in the Zêzere valley near Covais, and south of Penhas da Saúde....


Outras florestas edafo-climáticas naturais são as florestas com azereiro (Prunus lusitanica) (Habitat 5230), loureiro (Laurus nobilis) (Habitat 5230) e de azevinho (Ilex aquifolium) (Habitat 9380) que são espécies relíquias da antiga floresta de Laurissilva. Estas florestas do azereiro (Prunus lusitanica) sobreviveram em algumas enclaves no sul-este da Serra da Estrela (perto de Loriga) e na Serra do Açor (Mata da Margaraça) e da Lousã, em condições climáticas húmidas e quentes, influenciadas sobretudo pelo clima mediterrânico-atlântico desta região.




Azereiro (Prunus lusitanica)


Prunus lusitanica


...Portugal laurel (Prunus lusitanica subsp. lusitanica) is an evergreen shrub or tree with shiny dark green leathery perennial leaves, quite like those of the Laurel (Laurus nobilis) and therefore called lauroid or lauriphyllous. Trees with such characteristics occur at lower latitudes and form forests called laurisilvas. Prunus lusitanica subsp. hixa is known from Madeira and Canary Islands, Prunus lusitanica subsp. azorica is known from Açores. They belong to a group of endemic lauriphyllous species that grow in Iaurissilvas in the Macaronesian region (Canary islands, Madeira, Açores).
Their continental counterpart Prunus lusitanica subsp. lusitanica occurs in Portugal, Spain and North-Morocco. It is used as an ornamental tree, for instance in parks in London and Paris. Portugal Iaurel is native in the southern part of the Estrela, where its need for warm and moist conditions is met in some deep valleys. There in the lower bell a few small stands occur along some watercourses, often in contact with alder galleries. Both formations are remnants of edapho-climatic forests. The Portugal laurel galleries of the Serra da Estrela have affinities with those from the Montes de Toledo in Spain. They can he observed along the Ribeira de Loriga, Ribeira do Alvoco, Ribeira da Teixeira, Ribeira de Valcovo and Ribeira de Balocas.
Once Portugal laurel may have also grown in Pedunculate oak forests with evergreen elements that formerly occurred in the western piedmont areas of the Serra da Estrela. Other evergreen shrubs or low trees like the Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) and the Laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) are often companions of the Portugal laurel. In the undergrowth you may encounter a southern subspecies of Ivy (Hedera helix subsp. canariensis). Laurel stands (Laurus nobilis) seem to be restricted to only two extremely small sites around Loriga and Alvoco da Serra. It is not known whether these stands are natural or whether they have been planted. Laurel seems to find its optimal conditions in sheltered humid situations along rivers in valleys in the southern part of the Park in the lower belt, as Portugal laurel does. ...

 

Ilex aquifolium


...Holly forests are not well understood. In the Serra da Estrela merely individual  specimens of Holly (Ilex aquifolium) can be found. Some specialists consider them a relict of various forests with a field layer rich in Holly and sometimes with Yew (Taxus) (see also 2.3.2). Ilex is probably an old element from the palaeotropical or subtropical flora that later adapted to the new (Atlantic-Mediterranean) conditions. Holly seems to have its optimal conditions along rivers and slopes in valleys in the lower and medium belt. Individual trees can be observed in valleys in the southern part of the Park, e.g, Vale da Caniça near Ponte Jugais, Garganta de Loriga southwest of Penha do Gato and Covão da Nave, Vale de Loriga between Cabeca and Casal do Rei, Vale de Alvoco south of Penhas dos Abutres, north of Muralha and south of Aguincho, Ribeira da Lagoa, Vale da Candieira, and Souto do Concelho near Manteigas …




Ilex aquifolium na margem de um riacho, Serra da Lousã




Ilex aquifolium, Serra da Lousã


Sub-bosques


Cada um dos tipos de florestas até aqui mencionadas tem o seu sub-bosque característico, com plantas vasculares, musgos e liquens associados frequentemente às espécies de árvores que aqui occorem. No entanto, às vezes, como por exemplo do caso da floresta de Quercus suber e Quercus rotundifolia, estes sub-bosques podem ser bastante parecidos.
As florestas caducifólias têm sub-bosques especialmente ricos, e Jan Jansen menciona  para a Serra da Estrela (2002) mais do que 70 espécies características deste tipo de florestas.


Aqui as espécies listadas por Jan Jansen (2002) para as florestas caducifólias da Serra da Estrela:


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Narcissus triandrus subsp. pallidulus
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Osmunda regalis
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Hieracium sabaudum
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Lathraea clandestina
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Margens de florestas, aberturas e clareiras


As árvores da floresta tiram luz do sub-bosque. Quando se aproxima às margens de floresta, a luz aumenta e com isso a possibilidade das plantas do sub-bosque de crescer. A diversidade em espécies aumenta também.
Nas clareiras ou em zonas em que as árvores desapareceram desenvolve-se mato denso que pode crescer para um matagal (mato com arbustos mais altos e pequenas árvores). Também encontramos nas margens das florestas gramínes e plantas erváceas em grande quantidade.


The matagal in Estrela is usually not very well developed. Characteristic species of the matagal are: Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), two different subspecies of Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum subsp. hispanica and Lonicera periclymenum subsp. periclymenum), Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), Pyrus cordata, Dog-rose (Rosa canina). Small-flowered sweet-briar (Rosa micrantha), Elm-leaved bramble (Rubus ulmifolius), Elder (Sambucus nigra), and Black bryony (Tamus communis).
Amongst the herbs and grasses (If the forest fringes there are many attractive plant species.








Pode distinguir-se de um modo geral dois tipos de plantas com adaptações diferentes nas margens das florestas: espécies termófilas, mais resistentes contra falta de humidade, e espécies higrófilas, que precisam altos níveis de humidade e que normalmente também são mais exigentes nos azotos.


Nas margens das florestas climáticas crescem plantas termófilas, normalmente com folhagem e epiderme mais dura:




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Erysimum merxmuelleri v E. lagascae
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Vicia cracca
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As plantas que necessitam mais do azoto e que são mais higrófilas, encontram-se nas margens das florestas edafo-climáticas:









Fogo e queimas


Fogo faz parte da dinâmica natural dos sistemas florestais. No entanto, foi o homem que começou a dominar e utilizar o fogo antes ligado apenas aos trovoadas e à outras forças físicas metereológicas e geoquímicas naturais.
Este regulador natural do fogo nos ecossistemas começou a ser utilizado pelo homem nas queimas numa complexa interdependência entre a dinâmica natural das paisagens e da floresta e da gestão em sistemas agrícolas e agro-pastoris pelo homem. E apenas utilizado de modo sensato, o fogo pode ser utilizado com vantagem, se for fora de controle ou utilizado em crime, então começa a ser desastroso.


...Besides natural causes and fire management of shep herds there are other reasons why vegetation is set on fire. In the beginning of the century large parts of heathlands were conversed into highly flammable pine tree and Eucalyptus plantations. This policy forced shepherds to leave their pasture areas or to change their ways of living. The afforestation caused feelings of dissatisfaction amongst the shepherds and orher parts of the population. Retaliation may be one of the motives to set a plantation into fire, but for instance real estate developers may have profit and therefore a motive: burnt down vegetation has low value for nature conservation and may be easily acquired for construction works. Another, perhaps the most important motive, is the supply of large amounts of timber on the market: burnt trees are removed quickly otherwise they may be attacked by insects, moulds or mushrooms. This timber of minor quality is usually used to produce chipboards. The chipboard industry profits from a high supply because it brings about low timber prices.
An important aim of nature management is to create the largest possible biodiversity in the given circumstances. In some cases, if carefully used, burning seems to enlarge this diversity. Still very little is known about the effects of fire. Therefore we need to study the phenomenon of fire in order to apply a proper fire management to achieve a larger biodiversity. First of all uncontrolled fires should he avoided, because if we want to predict what happens after burning, we must study the situation before, during and the (long -term) development of nature after burning has taken place. ...




 
Zona acima da Nave de Santo António com campos de Pterydium aquilinum (verde-azulado no centro da imagem) e mato de Cytisus oromediterraneus-Genista cinerea  - após de incêndio.




Encosta norte no Covão da Ametade com mato rasteiro de giestas  - após de incêndio.




Encosta norte no Covão da Ametade com mato rasteiro de giestas - após de incêndio.






As comunidades fitossociológicas


As associações fitossociológicas das florestas na Serra da Estrela são listadas em (Jansen (2002) [1], as descrições das classes fitossociológicas em Rivas-Martinez (2002) [2]



38. RHAMNO-PRUNETEA



RHAMNO-PRUNETEA Rivas Goday & Borja ex Tüxen 1962
Deciduous shrubby mesophytic and xerophytic mantle and seral communities mostly of Querco-Fagetea and Salici-Populetea nigrae forest vegetation dominated by microphanerophytes mainly thorny and prickly scrambling shrubs developed on rich nutrient humic soils at forest edges towards fields grasslands or river-banks, also as permanent communities on shallow stony soils in cliffs, steep slopes or mountain gullies and snow cones in Eurosiberian and Mediterranean Regions (“espinales”, “zarzales”, “setos”, “bardissas”). 
Hard wood shrubs forest mantle and related thorn and prickly scrubby communities (Prunetalia spinosae) [Alpine, Central European, Pyrenean, Orocantabric and Oroiberian meso-supratemperate and submediterranean mostly semicontinental on base-rich soils (Berberidion vulgaris: Berberidenion vulgaris  Pyrenean and Orocantabric in Fagion climactical territory, Berberidenion seroi  Prepyrenean and Oroiberian forestal soils in Quercion humilis, Aceri-Quercion fagineae and Junipero sabinae-Pinion ibericae climactical territories, Amelanchiero-Buxenion  Pyrenean Oroiberian eroded soils in Quercion humilis, Aceri-Quercion fagineae and Junipero intermediae-Pinion catalaunicae climactical territories), Western Mediterranean and Atlantic thermo to supramediterranean and thermo to lower supratemperate mesophytic soils (Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii: Lonicerenion periclymeni  Atlantic thermo-mesotemperate mesophytic soils in Pulmonario-Quercion roboris climactical territory, Pruno-Rubenion ulmifolii  Balearic-Catalan-Provençal and Thyrrhenian, thermomesomediterranean in Quercenion ilicis and Populion albae territories, Rosenion carioti-pouzinii  Mediterranean Central and West Iberian, meso-supramediterranean mesic soils in Aceri-Quercion fagineae and Populion albae territories,
Tamo-Viburnenion lantanae  Atlantic and Pyrenean meso to lower supratemperate mesic base-rich soils in Quercion humilis, Pulmonario-Quercion roboris and Alnion incanae territories), Betic supra and lower oromediterranean subhumid and humid on rich soils in Paeonio-Quercenion rotundifoliae, Aceri-Quercion fagineae and Paeonio-Abietion pinsapo climactical territories (Lonicero arboreae-Berberidion hispanicae), thermo-mesotemperate Cantabrian-Atlantic mesic poor soil in Quercenion robori-pyrenaicae and Pulmonario-Quercion roboris territories (Frangulo-Pyrion cordatae)]; light wood and fast grow scrubby and prickly scrambling bramble communities growing on rich nitrified soils as forest mantle on mountain cones and gullies mostly in Central European Alpine and Pyrenean territories (Sambucetalia racemosae) [supra-lower orotemperate Alpine and Pyrenean locally in Oroiberian Sorian high mountains on moist rich soils often with megaforbs (Sambuco racemosae-Salicion capreae), supratemperate humid Central European rich soils scrambling bramble communities partially spread in Pyrenean (Pruno-Rubion radulae)]. Eurosiberian and Mediterranean.
39. SALICETEA-PURPUREAE




SALICI PURPUREAE-POPULETEA NIGRAE (Rivas-Martínez & Cantó ex Rivas-Martínez,
Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991) classis nova
Riparian wet decidous woodland and willow communities of Eurosiberian and Mediterranean Regions. 
Riverine meso-macroforests growing on wet fluvisols with high water-table (Populetalia albae) [temperate Eurosiberian (Alnion incanae), Mediterranean rich soils with slow flowing eutrophic water (Populion albae: Populenion albae = low zones of the river beds sometimes flooded, Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris = upper river bottom zone scarcely flooded), Mediterranean poor sandy or siliceous rock soils on river beds with running oligotrophic waters (Osmundo-Alnion)]; willow wooded and shrubby pioneer communities of the lowest zone of river and streambed usually flooded (Salicetalia purpureae) [Eurosiberian meso-supratemperate wooded willow on flooded deep river beds (Salicion albae), Alpine-Pyrenean and Orocantabric supratemperate and lower orotemperate shrubby willow pioneer communities (Salicion eleagni: Salicenion eleagni = Alpine-Pyrenean, Salicenion cantabricae = Orocantabric), thermo- to supramediterranean and scarcely submediterranean, mostly on semicontinental Iberian Peninsule, on rich soils and eutrophic waters (Salicion discolori-neotrichae), mesomediterranean Lusitan-Extremadurean on siliceous sandy and lithosol streambeds only flooded when heavy rainy periods (Flueggeion tinctoriae), thermo- to supramediterranean Mediterranean West Iberian but spread up to siliceous Oroiberian on sandy soils and oligotrophic waters (Salicion salviifoliae), thermo-mesomediterranean Betic, Gaditan, Aljibic, Tingitanian and Murcian-Almeriensian (Salicion pedicellatae)]. Eurosiberian and Mediterranean.
40. PINO-JUNIPERETEA



JUNIPERO SABINAE-PINETEA SYLVESTRIS Rivas-Martínez 1965 nom. inv. propos.
[Pino-Juniperetea]
Meso- to oromediterranean and supra- to lower orotemperate upper semiarid to hyperhumid, mostly semicontinental and often relict, coniferous micro-mesoforests, juniper-woodlands and related scrubs, Western Mediterranean and Alpine-Caucasian. 
Natural potential Pinus sylvestris var. pl. forests and Juniperus thurifera woodlands (Junipero sabinae-Pinetalia sylvestris) [basophilous Betic and Oroiberian upper supra- to oromediterranean subhumid and upper supra- to lower orotemperate submediterranean subhumid-humid pinelands of Pinus sylvestris subsp. nevadensis, Pinus sylvestris var. iberica, Pinus nigra subsp. mauretanica or occasionally in the summit of Gudar mountains Pinus uncinata (Junipero sabinae-Pinion ibericae), silicicolous and acidophilous Guadarramean and Oroiberian, and relict in Orocantabric (Pinar de Lillo), upper supra- to lower orotemperate but submediterranean in southern zones, pinelands of Pinus sylvestris var. iberica and in the summits between Urbión and Cebollera mountains Pinus uncinata (Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae), Pyrenean upper supratemperate sometimes submediterranean pinelands or Pinus sylvestris var. catalaunica and Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica more in central and western zones and often at high altitude Pinus uncinata and hybrids (Junipero intermediae-Pinion catalaunicae: Junipero intermediae-Pinenion catalaunicae = acidophilous, Festuco gautieri-Pinenion sylvestris = basophilous), calcicolous, excepcionally silicicolous, meso-supramediterranean and supratemperate submediterranean semiarid to humid, Oroiberian, Low Aragonese, Castilian, Guadarramean and south in Orocantabric, Juniperus thurifera woodlands (Juniperion thuriferae)]; seral or climatophilous scrubby oromediterranean and orotemperate submediterranean subhumid to hyperhumid communities, Carpetan, Oroiberian, Betic and Nevadensian (Juniperetalia hemisphaericae) [Carpetan (Guadarramean and Bejaran-Gredensean) silicicolous orotemperate mostly submediterranean humid-hyperhumid dwarf juniper climactical and broom Cytisus-Echinospartum (Cytision oromediterranei), silicicolous oromediterranean subhumid Nevadensian (Genisto versicoloris-Juniperion hemisphaericae), Betic and Oroiberian calcicolous upper supra-oromediterranean and upper supra orotemperate submediterranean subhumid-humid (Pruno prostratae-Juniperion sabinae)]. Western Mediterranean, Alpine-Caucasian.


41. QUERCETEA-ILICIS



QUERCETEA ILICIS Br.-Bl. ex A. & O. Bolòs 1950
Thermo- to supramediterranean semiarid to humid evergreen and semidecidous woodlands, scrublands and maquis of Mediterranean Region (excluded Canarian Subregion) but spread also into meridional submediterranean Eurosiberian territories.
Thermo- to supramediterranean dry to humid natural potential micro-mesoforest vegetation growing on base-rich or poor soils but without salinization process or permanent gleyic properties (Quercetalia ilicis) [ thermomediterranean dry to humid Olea sylvestris, Quercus rotundifolia, Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis or Ceratonia siliqua meso-microforest with thermomediterranean species in the understory, such as Aristolochia baetica, Asparagus aphyllus, Clematis cirrhosa, Chamaerops humilis, Osyris lanceolata, Prasium majus, Rhamnus oleoides, etc., spread in Western Mediterranean Subregion (Querco rotundifoliae-Oleion sylvestris), meso-lower supramediterranean dry to humid climactical meso-microforests and thermo-mesotemperate submediterranean dry to humid xeric permanent communities, growing on Mediterranean Central Iberian and Balearic-Catalan-Provençal Provinces and in the rest of European Western Mediterranean Tyrrhenan territories as well as Cantabrian-Basque and Eastern Pyrenean Sectors and Alpine or Apennine related territories (Quercion ilicis: Quercenion ilicis = at least subhumid Quercus ilex subsp. ilex and Quercus ilex subsp. gracilis euoceanic mesoforests spread in Balearic-Catalan-Provençal, rest of European Tyrrhenian and Cantabrian-Basque territories as well as in neighbouring temperate submediterranean territories, Quercenion rotundifoliae = dry to humid on shallow and mostly baserich soils in semicontinental Mediterranean Central Iberian, Quercus rotundifolia micro-mesoforests), meso-lower supramediterranean dry to humid on deep or shallow soils Betic and Mediterranean West Iberian mostly on base poor soils (Quercion broteroi: Quercenion broteroi = subhumid-humid mostly euoceanic Quercus suber or Quercus broteroi mesoforests, Paeonio broteroi-Quercenion rotundifoliae = dry to humid mostly semicontinental Quercus rotundifolia micro-mesoforests)]. [The geovicarian fitosociological units are in Eastern Mediterranean: Aristolochio sempervirentis-Quercion ilicis Barbero & Quézel ex Rivas-Martínez all. nova, and in meso-supramediterranean dry to humid Maghrebian: Balanseo glaberrimae-Quercion rotundifoliae Barbero, Quézel & Rivas-Martínez ex Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Izco in Not. Fitosoc. 19(2): 80. 1986)]. Thermo- to supramediterranean lower semiarid to humid permanent shrubs, mantle forests, seral maquis and dwarf-scrubs communities, which could represent in semiarid the climactical vegetation but in dry to humid only could be a permanent natural community on shallow and xeric biotopes, as well as seral and mantle forests vegetation in Quercetalia ilicis natural potential vegetation territories (Pistacio lentisci-Rhamnetalia alaterni) [thermomediterranean upper semiarid to subhumid euoceanic, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Lusitan-Extremadurean, Betic, Murcian-Almeriensian, Setabensean, Valencian-Tarraconensean and also spread into Maghrebian-Tingitanian, permanent shrubs, mantle forests and seral maquis communities, characterized by Asparagus aphyllus, Rhamnus fontqueri, Rhamnus oleoides, Rhamnus velutinus subsp. almeriensis and Salsola webbi (Asparago albi-Rhamnion oleoidis), thermomediterranean dry-subhumid euoceanic, Balearic-Provençal and Empordanese, permanent shrubs, mantle forests and seral maquis communities (Oleo-Ceratonion), meso-supramediterranean semiarid to humid mostly semicontinental, Western Mediterranean European and also spread, as relict in temperate south Pyrenean slopes and walls on base-rich soils, permanent shrubs, mantle forests and seral maquis communities (Rhamno lycioidis-Quercion cocciferae), thermomediterranean lower semiarid euoceanic frosts or, at least, lacking long time winter frosts, Murcian-Almeriensian and Maghrebian-Moulouyian, shrubby permanent or summer semidecidous dwarf-scrubs communities (Periplocion angustifoliae), thermomediterranean semiarid to lower subhumid hyperoceanic and euoceanic, Western Mediterranean and Maghrebian, permanent shrubs communities growing on coastal sand dunes and paleodunes (Juniperion turbinatae), thermomediterranean and thermotemperate submediterranean dry to subhumid, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian and Galician-Portuguese permanent dwarf-scrub communities on littoral active poor dunes as succesion of Ammophiletea: Helichrysion picardii vegetation, and as external windy mantle of Juniperion turbinatae permanent shrubby dune vegetation (Rubio longifoliae-Coremation albi), thermo-mesomediterranean and thermotemperate subhumid- to hyperhumid, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Galician-Potuguese and Maghrebian-Tingitanian, low mantle forests and seral maquis communities growing on poor silicic or sandy podzolic soils (Quercion lusitanicae), upper thermomediterranean to supramediterranean and mesotemperate submediterranean subhumid-humid, Western Mediterranean and neighbouring temperate submediterranean teritories mantle forest and seral maquis communities growing on silicic poor or rich soils but with lost of free carbonates in B horizon (Ericion arboreae), thermo-mesomediterranean and thermotemperate submediterranean humid Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Lusitan-Extremadurean and Cantabrian-Atlantic permanent shrubs and mantle forest growing on poor or rich soils (Arbuto unedonis-Laurion nobilis: Arbuto unedonis-Laurenion nobilis = spread in all the territory, Rhododendrenion pontici = Aljibic and Monchiquensean, mantle of Quercus canariensis and Alnus glutinosa forest characterized by Rhododendron ponticum), thermo- to lower supramediterranean dry to humid Malacitan-Almijarensean, Bermejensean and spread locally in Betic, permanent shrubs with an open canopy of Pinus pinaster subsp. acutisquama or Pinus halepensis growing on soils rich in magnesite, dolomite or serpentine minerals, as well as in eroded clayed or vertic substrata which prevent the development of Quercus rotundifolia, Quercus suber or Quercus
faginea subsp. alpestris forests that climatically would correspond (Pino acutisquamae-Juniperion phoeniceae)]. Mediterranean.
42. QUERCO-FAGETEA





QUERCO-FAGETEA Br.-Bl. & Vlieger in Vlieger 1937
Thermo- to lower orotemperate, meso- to lower oromediterranean subhumid to ultrahyperhumid and thermo-mesoboreal humid as secondary decidouous forests (Betulo-Populetalia tremulae), hyperoceanic to subcontinental Eurasiatic (Eurosiberian and Mediterranean) and North African Maghrebian mostly climactical deciduous broad-leaved and mixed broad-leaved meso-macroforest growing on many types of rich and poor soils, but absent of wet fluvisols, river beds and flooded horizontal river banks, in which biotopes only a wet deciduous poplar and willow woodland and scrubs communities of the class Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae can be stablished as forest. 
Meso- to lower orotemperate upper subhumid to ultrahyperhumid hyperoceanic to subcontinental Atlantic Central European and Alpine-Caucasian climactical woodlands growing on rich neutral soils (Fagetalia sylvaticae) [meso- to lower orotemperate humid-hyperhumid, Orocantabric, Cantabrian-Atlantic, Cevennean-Pyrenean and local spread to Sorian Oroiberian climactical beech and beech-fir (Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) meso-macroforests (Fagion sylvaticae: Scillo-Fagenion = mesic, Epipactido helleborines-Fagenion sylvaticae = xeric or thermic), supratemperate humid-hyperhumid Orocantabric, Pyrenean and Alpine Tilia platyphyllos, Acer platanoides or Ulmus glabra, deciduous mesoforests growing on stony ravines, torrents, bottom of shadow canyons on wet and rich soils often covered with big boulders and long lasting windy and avalanche snowy winter (Tilio-Acerion), upper supratemperae humid-hyperhumid Pyrenean, Alpine and Balkanic Abies alba meso-macroforests growing on mesic acid soils mostly on shady slopes with long lasting winter snow (Galio rotundifolii-Abietion albae: Saxifrago umbrosae-Abietenion albae = Pyrenean), thermo-to supratemperate upper subhumid to lower hyperhumid Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabric and Cevennean-Pyrenean oak (Quercus robur, Quercus pubescens) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) deciduous meso-macroforests growing on silt or clayey rich mesic soils with mollic or umbric A horizon (Pulmonario longifoliae-Quercion
roboris), western meridional alliance that could be considered as geovicariant of the more septentrional Carpinion betuli Issler 1931]; thermo- to lower orotemperate, meso-supramediterranean and submediterranean subhumid to ultrahyperhumid hyperoceanic
to semicontinental, Atlantic Central European but spread to Western Mediterranean, West Alpine and Pyrenean, deciduous oak and beech meso-macroforests growing on poor sandy or loamy acid soils (Quercetalia roboris) [mesosupratemperate humid-hyperhumid septentrional Atlantic Central European deciduous acidophilic oak or oak-beech meso-macroforests where the common oaks in our territories are: Quercus petraea, Quercus huguetiana, Quercus petraea x pubescens and locally in Catalonia Quercus canariensis (Quercion roboris: Quercenion robori-petraeae = Western and southern territories), supratemperate humid and hyperhumid euoceanic and semicontinental climactical beech meso-macroforests, Atlantic (Subatlantic) Central Europaean, Alpine, also spread into Eastern Pyrenean growing on poor acid soils lacking carbonates (Luzulo-Fagion: Luzulo niveae-Fagenion = Eastern Pyrenean), meso- to lower orotemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid euoceanic, occasionally submediterranean but then in shady or wet slopes, acidophilic sessile oak (Quercus petraea), orocantabric oak (Quercus orocantabrica) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) micro to macroforests, Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabric, Bercian-Sanabrian, Central Pyrenean, Oroiberian and Guadarraman Ayllonensian (Ilici-Fagion: Ilici-Fagenion = beech forests, Luzulo henriquesii-Quercenion petraeae = supra- to lower orotemperate sessile and orocantabric oak forests), thermo- to supratemperate often submediterranean, meso-supramediterranean subhumid to ultrahyperhumid hyperoceanic to semicontinental, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and pyrenaic oak (Quercus pyrenaica) pure or mixed micro- to macroforest growing on poor decarbonated soils with an umbric A horizon, Cantabrian-Atlantic, Oroiberian, Western Mediterranean Iberian Peninsule spread to Maghrebian-Riffean mountains (Quercion pyrenaicae: Quercenion roboripyrenaicae = temperate and submediterranean Eurosiberian territories Quercus robur or mixed Quercus robur and Quercus pyrenaica meso-macroforest, Quercenion pyrenaicae = Mediterranean territories of Iberian Peninsule and submediterranean
mountains just Quercus pyrenaica micro-mesoforests)]; meso-supratemperate and submediterranean, and meso-supramediterranean subhumid-humid Alpine-Caucasian also spread into xerothermic Central European valleys, and Mediterranean euoceanic to subcontinental, very rich and diverse often xeric meso-macroforests of deciduous Quercus sp. pl. and Acer sp. pl. or meridional Abies sp. pl. (Quercetalia pubescentis) [meso-supratemperate and submediterranean subhumid-humid, semicontinental xeric, Alpine-Pyrenean also spread into Central European xerothermic zones and southern valleys as well as Navarran-Alavan territories of Cantabrian-Basque Sector, Quercus pubescens subsp. pubescens and Quercus pubescens subsp. subpyrenaica, and their hybrids (Quercus xcalvescens, Quercus xcerrioides, Quercus xkerneri, Quercus xdesmotricha, etc.) mesoforests, growing on rich soils (Quercion pubescenti-petraeae: Buxo sempervirentis-Quercenion pubescentis = Pyrenean), meso-supramediterranean subhumid-humid euoceanic and semicontinental climactical deciduous micro-mesoforests of Iberian Peninsule organized by Quercus faginea subsp. faginea, Quercus faginea subsp. alpestris or Acer granatense, growing on rich and clayey soils in Mediterranean Central Iberian, Betic, Setabensean, and Valencian-Tarraconensean and seldom spread in Majorcan northern mountains (Aceri granatensis-Quercion fagineae), meso-supramediterranean humid-hyperhumid euoceanic Rondean climactical pinsapo-fir (Abies pinsapo) mesomacroforests growing on deep soils of calcitic dolomite, dolostone and peridotite ultramafic rocks (Paeonio broteroi-Abietion pinsapo)]; meso- to lower orotemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid, thermo-mesoboreal humid-hyperhumid and upper supra-lower oromediterranean humid, Eurosiberian and Mediterranean high mountains, fast growing soft wood micro-mesoforests seral communities of climactical euoceanic to subcontinental hardwood and coniferous forests (Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Junipero-Pinetea) growing on acidic or neutral soils; occasionally they could be potential natural forests (Betulo pendulae-Populetalia tremulae); this order can be considered as geovicariant of Northamerican boreal and temperate secondary forest of Betulo papyriferae-Populetalia tremuloidis Rivas-Martínez, Sánchez-Mata & Costa in Itinera Geobot. 12: 172. 1999 [upper meso- to lower orotemperate humid-hyperhumid, euoceanic to subcontinental, Alpine, Cevennean-Pyrenean and Atlantic-Central European (excluded Atlantic territories of Iberian Peninsule), deciduous seral secondary micro-mesoforests dominated by Betula pendula, Corylus avellana, Populus tremula or Salix caprea, growing on poor acid or neutral rich soils (Corylo avellanae-Populion tremulae), orotemperate humid-hyperhumid, semicontinental, Alpine-Pyrenean secondary microforests of Piceetalia abietis climactical coniferous forests, growing on poor podzolic soils, in the Pyrenees are seral of fir forest Rhododendro-Abietetum albae and black pine forest Rhododendro-Pinetum uncinatae, as well as permanent microforest community on wet poor soils in gullies, avalanche cones, big boulder chaos with long lasting snow, streambeds, etc., usually with Betula pubescens, Betula carpatica or Sorbus aucuparia as dominants (Betulion carpatico-pubescentis), it could be considered as geovicariant of boreal oceanic Betulion tortuosae all. nova hoc loco, mesoto lower orotemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid, submediterranean and seldom upper supra-lower oromediterranean potential natural microforest, as well secondary micro-mesoforests seral of beech, deciduous oaks or Iberian scots pine (Ilici-Fagion, Quercion pyrenaicae, Avenello-Pinion ibericae), dominated by Betula celtiberica, Betula fontqueri subsp. fontqueri, Corylus avellana or Populus tremula, and spread in Iberian Peninsule (excluded Pyrenees) in Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabric, Carpetan-Leonese, Sorian Oroiberian and Nevadensian, but seldom in Magherbian Riff mountains (Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae)]. Eurosiberian and Mediterranean.




[1] Jansen, J. 2002. Geobotanical guide of the Serra da Estrela. Instituto da Conservação da Natureza. Ministério das Cidades, Ordenamento do Território e Ambiente, Lisboa.

[2]  Descrições das classes fitossociógicas: Rivas-Martínez et. al. (2002): Vascular Plant Communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical Checklist of 2001. ITINERA GEOBOTANICA. Vol. 15(1).
(Download link para: Volume I e Volume II)












Veja à seguir: 13. The Northern Serras of Portugal (Serra da Estrela (charnecas e matos)))




1 comentário:

Berantakan disse...

Excelente trabalho.
Muito obrigado. Foi um prazer ler este post.

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