A Associação "Trilhos d'Esplendor" com sede na Praia de Quiaios, Figueira da Foz, pretende fazer em caminhadas guiadas uma descrição fotográfica da Flora da Serra da Boa Viagem e das Dunas de Mira, Gândara e Gafanhas. Também mostramos o uso fito-terapêutico desta Flora cujo valor na medicina tradicional é bem conhecido na população local. São todos convidados para descobrir a beleza florística desta terra. Visitem uma das regiões mais importantes de biodiversidade de Portugal!

Download of PDFs (2 Volumes - Eds. 2014):

"Polunin - Flowers of South-West Europe - revisited" (Vol. I - Introdução - 371 pp.) (->Download)

"Polunin - Flowers of South-West Europe - revisited" (Vol. II - Portugal - 1559 pp.) (-> Download)

(contains Web links to Flora-On for observed plant species, Web links to high resolution Google satellite-maps (JPG) of plant-hunting regions from the Iberian peninsula; illustrated text in Portuguese language)


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Flora da Serra da Boa Viagem - Folha de Cálculo - > 500 Taxa - > 5000 Fotografias, Scans e Chaves

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domingo, 13 de janeiro de 2013

Flowers of South-West Europe revisited (3.5 - Recolha de Dados)

“Flowers of South-West Europe - a field guide” - de Oleg Polunin e B.E. Smythies

“Revisitas” de regiões  esquecidas no tempo - “Plant Hunting Regions” - a partir de uma obra de grande valor para o especialista e amador de botânica como da Natureza em geral.

Por

Horst Engels, Cecilia Sousa, Luísa Diniz, Nicole Engels, José Saraiva; Victor Rito

da

Associação “Trilhos d’Esplendor”

III - Levantamento de Dados

3. Levantamento  de Dados

3 .1 Fotografia  

3.2 Identificação de plantas

3. 3   Mapas e cartografia

3.4 Narrativas

3.5 Indicadores ambientais (EEA-2012)

3.6 Inqueritos

3.7 Antropologia Médica

3.8 Pesquisas ornitológicas

3.5 Indicadores ambientais (EEA-2012) [1]

Annex Overview of EEA's environmental indicators (status: 1 March 2012)    

This annex provides an overview of the 225 environmental indicators hosted by the EEA. Besides indicator names and codes, this overview also provides information on the role of the indicator within the DSPIR model and on the type of indicators following the EEA's indicator typology (see Chapter 3).  

EEA indicators are developed against the driving force, pressure, state, impact, and response (DPSIR) assessment framework. This framework helps to structure thinking about the interplay between the environment and socio-economic activities. It is used to help design assessments, identify indicators, and communicate results and can support improved environmental monitoring and information collection (Stanners et al., 2007).

Simply put, following the DPSIR framework, social and economic developments drive (D) changes that exert pressure (P) on the environment. As a consequence, changes occur in the state (S) of the environment, which lead to impacts (I) on, for example, human health, ecosystem functioning and the economy. Finally societal and political responses (R) affect earlier parts of the system directly or indirectly.

EEA indicators are accessible at: www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/  indicators.    

Indicator focus (within DPSIR model) — see Chapter 3 for more details.    

Number of EEA indicators in category                  

D    

 P      

 S    

 I    

R    

Total  

50  

71

33    

46

25

225

D – Driving force indicators                                                    

P – Pressure indicators                                                    

S – State indicators                                                    

I – Impact indicators                                                    

R – Response indicators                    

                                 

Indicator type — see Chapter 3 for more details            

Number of EEA indicators by type  

A

B

C

D

 E

Total

175

35

12

 3

0

225

 

                             

A – Descriptive indicators: 'What's happening?'                                    

B – Performance indicators: 'Does it matter?'; 'Are we reaching targets?'    

C – Efficiency indicators: 'Are we improving?'    

D – Policy effectiveness indicators: 'Are the measures working?'    

E – Total welfare indicators: 'Are we on the whole better off?'    

From a policy perspective, there is a clear need for information and indicators on all parts of the DPSIR chain (Stanners et al., 2007):

Driving force indicators describe the social and economic developments in societies and the corresponding changes in lifestyles and overall levels of consumption and production patterns. Primary driving forces are demographic changes and economic activities.

Pressure indicators  describe developments in the release of substances (e.g. emissions to air or water), physical and biological agents, the use of resources and use of land. The pressures exerted often manifest themselves in changes in environmental conditions.

State indicators provide a description of the quantity and quality of physical phenomena (e.g. temperature), biological phenomena (e.g. species and habitat diversity) and chemical phenomena (e.g. nutrient critical loads) in a certain area.

Impact indicators  are used to describe the relevance of changes implications for ecosystems, the economy and human well-being and health.

Response indicators  refer to responses by society and policymakers that attempt to prevent, compensate, ameliorate, or adapt to changes in the state of the environment. Examples include recycling rates of domestic waste or use of renewable energy sources.

Indicator

name

Indicator

code

Indicator

focus

Indicator

type

Agriculture indicators

2 indicators (including 2 CSI indicators)

Gross nutrient balance

CSI 25

P

A

Area under organic farming

CSI 26

R

A

Air pollution indicators

11 indicators (including 5 CSI indicators)

Emission of acidifying substances

CSI 01

P

B

Emissions of ozone precursors

CSI 02

P

B

Emissions of primary particulate matter and secondary particulate matter precurser

CSI 03

P

B

Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas

CSI 04

S

A

Exposure of ecosystems to acidification

eutrophication and ozone

CSI 05

S

B

Sulphur dioxide emissions

APE 01

P

B

Nitrogen oxides emissions

APE 02

P

B

Ammonia emissions

APE 03

P

B

Non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions

APE 04

P

B

Heavy metal emissions

APE 05

P

B

Persistent organic pollutant emissions

APE 06

P

B

Biodiversity indicators

27 indicators (including 3 CSI indicators)

Species of European interest

CSI 07

S

A

Designated areas

CSI 08

R

A

Species diversity

CSI 09

S

A

Abundance and distribution of selected species

SEBI 01

S

A

Red List Index for European species

SEBI 02

S

A

Ecosystem coverage

SEBI 04

S

A

Habitats of European interest

SEBI 05

S

A

Livestock genetic diversity

SEBI 06

S

A

Nationally designated protected areas

SEBI 07

R

A

Sites designated under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives

SEBI 08

R

A

Critical load exceedance for nitrogen

SEBI 09

P

B

Invasive alien species in Europe

SEBI 10

P

A

Impact of climate change on bird population

SEBI 11

P

A

Marine trophic index of European seas

SEBI 12

S

A

Fragmentation of natural and semi-natural areas

SEBI 13

P

A

Nutrients in transitional

coastal and marine waters

SEBI 15

P

A

Freshwater quality

SEBI 16

P

A

Forest: growing stock

increment and fellings

SEBI 17

P

A

Forest: deadwood

SEBI 18

S

A

Agriculture: nitrogen balance

SEBI 19

P

A

Agriculture: area under management practices potentially supporting biodiversity

SEBI 20

S

A

Fisheries: European commercial fish stocks

SEBI 21

P

A

Aquaculture: effluent water quality from finfish farms

SEBI 22

P

A

Ecological Footprint of European countries

SEBI 23

P

A

Patent applications based on genetic resources

SEBI 24

R

A

Financing biodiversity management

SEBI025

R

A

Public awareness

SEBI 26

R

A

Climate change indicators 45 indicators (including 5 CSI indicators)

Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances

CSI 06

P

B

Greenhouse gas emission trends

CSI 10

P

B

Greenhouse gas emission projections

CSI 11

P

A

Global and European temperature

CSI 12

S

B

Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations

CSI 13

S

A

European precipitation

CLIM 02

I

A

Precipitation extremes in Europe

CLIM 04

I

A

Storm and storm surges in Europe

CLIM 05

I

A

Air pollution by ozone

CLIM 06

I

A

Glaciers

CLIM 07

I

A

Snow cover

CLIM 08

I

A

Greenland ice sheet

CLIM 09

I

A

Arctic sea ice

CLIM 10

I

A

Mountain permafrost

CLIM 11

I

A

Sea level rise

CLIM 12

I

A

Sea surface temperature

CLIM 13

I

A

Marine phenology

CLIM 14

I

A

Northward movement of marine species

CLIM 15

I

A

River flow

CLIM 16

I

A

River floods

CLIM 17

I

A

River flow drought

CLIM 18

I

A

Water temperature

CLIM 19

I

A

Lake and river ice cover

CLIM 20

I

A

Freshwater biodiversity and water quality

CLIM 21

I

A

Distribution of plant species

CLIM 22

I

A

Plant phenology

CLIM 23

I

A

Distribution of animal species

CLIM 24

I

A

Animal phenology

CLIM 25

I

A

Species-ecosystem relationship

CLIM 26

I

A

Soil organic carbon

CLIM 27

I

A

Soil erosion by water

CLIM 28

I

A

Water retention

CLIM 29

I

A

Glowing season for agricultural crops (agrophenology)

CLIM 30

I

A

Timing of the cycle of agricultural crops (agrophenology)

CLIM 31

I

A

Crop-yield variability

CLIM 32

I

A

Water requirement

CLIM 33

I

A

Forest growth

CLIM 34

I

A

Forest fire danger

CLIM 35

I

A

Heat and health

CLIM 36

I

A

Vector-borne disease

CLIM 37

I

A

Water and food-borne diseases

CLIM 38

I

A

Direct losses from weather disasters

CLIM 39

I

A

Normalised losses from river flood disasters

CLIM 40

I

A

Coastal areas

CLIM 41

I

A

Agriculture and forestry

CLIM 42

I

A

Energy indicators

29 indicators (including 5 CSI indicators)

Final energy consumption by sector

CSI 27

D

A

Total primary energy intensity

CSI 28

R

B

Primary energy consumption by fuel

CSI 29

D

A

Renewable primary energy consumption

CSI 30

R

B

Renewable electricity consumption

CSI 31

R

B

Energy and non-energy related greenhouse gas emissions

ENER 01

P

A

Energy-related emissions of ozone precursors

ENER 05

P

A

Energy-related emissions of acidifying substances

ENER 06

P

A

Energy-related emissions of particulate matter

ENER 07

P

A

Emission intensity of public conventional thermal power electricity and heat production

ENER 08

I

C

Emissions from public electricity and heat production

ENER 09

P

C

Residues from combustion of coal for energy production

ENER 10

D

A

Energy efficiency in transformation

ENER 11

D

C

Net energy import dependency

ENER 12

D

C

Nuclear energy and waste production

ENER 13

P

A

Discharge of oil from refineries and offshore installations

ENER 14

D

A

Accidental oil spills from marine shipping

ENER 15

D

A

Final electricity consumption by sector

ENER 18

D

A

Efficiency of conventional thermal electricity generation

ENER 19

D

C

Combined heat and power

ENER 20

R

C

Final energy consumption intensity

ENER 21

D

A

Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the household sector

ENER 22

S

C

Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the transport sector

ENER 23

S

C

Energy intensity in the service sector

ENER 24

S

C

Energy efficiency and energy consumption in industry

ENER 25

S

C

Electricity production by fuel

ENER 27

D

A

Renewable gross final energy consumption

ENER 28

I

C

Energy taxes

ENER 32

D

A

External costs of electricity production

ENER 35

D

D

Transport indicators

38 indicators (including 3 CSI indicators)

Passenger transport demand

CSI 35

D

A

Freight transport demand

CSI 36

D

A

Use of cleaner and alternative fuels

CSI 37

R

D

Transport final energy consumption by mode

TERM 01

P

A

Transport emissions of greenhouse gases

TERM 02

P

A

Transport emissions of air pollutants

TERM 03

P

A

Exceedances of air quality objectives due to traffic

TERM 04

S

A

Traffic noise: exposure and annoyance

TERM 05

I

A

Fragmentation of ecosystems and habitats by transport infrastructure

TERM 06

S

A

Proximity of transport infrastructures to designated areas

TERM 07

P

A

Land take by transport infrastructure

TERM 08

P

A

Transport accident fatalities

TERM 09

P

A

Accidental and illegal discharges of oil by ships at sea

TERM 10

P

A

Waste from road vehicles

TERM 11

P

A

Urban spatial characteristics and transport

TERM 14

D

A

Accessibility to basic services and markets by transport mode

TERM 15

D

A

Access to transport services

TERM 16

D

A

Capacity of infrastructure networks

TERM 18

D

A

Transport infrastructure investments

TERM 19

D

A

Real change in transport prices by mode

TERM 20

D

A

Fuel prices

TERM 21

D

A

Transport taxes and charges

TERM 22

R

A

Transport subsidies

TERM 23

D

A

Expenditures on personal mobility

TERM 24

D

A

External costs and charges per vehicle type

TERM 25

P

A

Internalisation of external costs

TERM 26

R

D

Energy efficiency and specific CO2 emissions

TERM 27

P

A

Specific air pollutant emissions

TERM 28

P

A

Occupancy rates of passenger vehicles

TERM 29

D

A

Load factors for freight transport

TERM 30

D

A

Size of the vehicle fleet

TERM 32

P

C

Average age of the vehicle fleet

TERM 33

D

A

Proportion of vehicle fleet meeting certain emission standards

TERM 34

D

A

Integrated transport and environment strategies in the EU

TERM 35

R

A

Institutional cooperation on transport and environment

TERM 36

R

A

National transport and environment monitoring systems

TERM 37

R

A

Uptake of strategic environmental assessment in the transport sector

TERM 38

R

A

Public awareness and behaviour

TERM 40

R

A

Waste indicators 2 indicators (including 2 CSI indicators)

Municipal waste generation

CSI 16

P

A

Generation and recycling of packaging waste

CSI 17

P

A

Water indicators 15 indicators (including 7 CSI indicators)

Use of freshwater resources

CSI 18

P/S

A

Oxygen consuming substances in rivers

CSI 19

S

A

Nutrients in freshwater

CSI 20

S

A

Nutrients in transitional

coastal and marine waters

CSI 21

S

A

Bathing water quality

CSI 22

S

B

Chlorophyll in transitional

coastal and marine waters

CSI 23

S

A

Urban wastewater treatment

CSI 24

R

A

National river classification schemes

WEC 04

I

A

Biological quality of lakes

WEC 05

S

A

Emissions of organic matter

WEU 08

P

A

Emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus from UWWT plants

WEU 09

D

A

Pesticides in groundwater

WHS 01

S

A

Hazardous substances in rivers

WHS 02

S

A

Hazardous substances in lakes

WHS 03

S

A

Loads of hazardous substances to coastal waters

WHS 07

P

A

Others indicators (Fisheries) 3 indicators (including 3 CSI indicators)

Status of marine fish stocks

CSI 32

S

A

Aquaculture production

CSI 33

P

A

Fishing fleet capacity

CSI 34

P

A

Other indicators (Land and Soil) 2 indicators (including 2 CSI indicators)

Land take

CSI 14

P

A

Progress in management of contaminated sites

CSI 15

R

A

Other indicators (Tourism) 7 indicators

Tourism travel by transport mode

D

A

Tourism contribution to GDP

YIR01TO05

D

A

Tourism expenditures of private households

YIR01TO07

D

A

Tourism arrivals

YIR01TO08

D

A

Overnight stays

YIR01TO09

D

A

Tourism intensity

YIR01TO10

D

A

Penetration of tourist eco-labels

YIR01TO12

D

A

Environmental scenarios indicators 44 indicators

Emissions of acidifying substances — outlook from LRTAP

Outlook 02

P

B

Emissions of ozone precursors — outlook from LRTAP

Outlook 03

D

A

Change in species diversity as a result of climate change — outlook from EEA

Outlook 04

I

A

Municipal waste generation — outlook from EEA

Outlook 05

P

A

Emissions of ozone precursors — outlook from WBCSD

Outlook 06

D

A

Emissions of primary particulates — outlook from LRTAP

Outlook 07

P

A

GHG emissions — outlook from MNP

Outlook 08

P

B

Land cover

use of arable land — outlook from EEA

Outlook 09

P

A

Total fertilizer consumption — outlook from FAO

Outlook 10

P

B

Final energy consumption — outlook from IEA

Outlook 11

D

A

Municipal waste generation — outlook from OECD

Outlook 13

P

A

Use of freshwater resources — outlook from EEA

Outlook 14

S

A

Passenger transport demand — outlook from WBCSD

Outlook 17

D

A

Emissions of acidifying substances — outlook from WBCSD

Outlook 18

P

B

GHG concentrations — outlook from MNP

Outlook 19

S

A

Gross nutrient balance — outlook from EEA

Outlook 20

P

A

Global and European temperature

Outlook 21

S

B

Fertilizer consumption — outlook from EEA

Outlook 23

P

B

Emissions of primary particulates — outlook from WBCSD

Outlook 24

P

A

Projections of GHG emissions — outlook from National Communications under UNFCCC

Outlook 25

P

B

Passenger transport demand — outlook from OECD

Outlook 26

D

A

Freight transport demand — outlook from WBCSD

Outlook 27

D

A

Total electricity consumption — outlook from IEA

Outlook 28

P

B

Total energy consumption — outlook from IEA

Outlook 30

P

A

GHG emissions — outlook from IIASA

Outlook 31

P

A

GHG emissions — outlook from WBCSD

Outlook 32

D

A

Generation and recycling of packaging waste — outlook from EEA

Outlook 35

P

A

GHG emissions — outlook from IEA

Outlook 36

D

A

Freight transport demand — outlook from OECD

Outlook 37

D

A

Renewable energy consumption — outlook from IEA

Outlook 39

R

B

GDP — outlook from OECD

Outlook 41

D

A

Total population — outlook from UNSTAT

Outlook 42

D

A

Tourist arrivals — outlook from WTO model

Outlook 43

D

A

Land cover distribution and change — outlook from MNP

Outlook 46

I

B

Urban wastewater treatment — outlook from EEA

Outlook 47

R

A

Final energy consumption — outlook from EEA

Outlook 48

D

A

Total energy intensity — outlook from EEA

Outlook 49

P

A

Total energy consumption — outlook from EEA

Outlook 50

P

B

Total electricity consumption — outlook from EEA

Outlook 51

P

B

Renewable energy consumption — outlook from EEA

Outlook 52

R

B

Renewable electricity — outlook from EEA

Outlook 53

R

B

Passenger transport demand — outlook from EEA

Outlook 54

P

B

Freight transport demand — outlook from EEA

Outlook 55

P

B

Car ownership — outlook from WBCSD

Outlook 56

D

B

(It is worth noting, however, that while indicators can provide an accepted yardstick for benchmarking between different countries, regions, or municipalities, they can also be misleading in their simplicity. The basis for indicator selection, computation and communication must therefore be continuously kept under review to capture current developments and maintain policy relevance.)

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