A Associação "Trilhos d'Esplendor" com sede na Praia de Quiaios, Figueira da Foz, pretende fazer em caminhadas guiadas uma descrição fotográfica da Flora da Serra da Boa Viagem e das Dunas de Mira, Gândara e Gafanhas. Também mostramos o uso fito-terapêutico desta Flora cujo valor na medicina tradicional é bem conhecido na população local. São todos convidados para descobrir a beleza florística desta terra. Visitem uma das regiões mais importantes de biodiversidade de Portugal!

Download of PDFs (2 Volumes - Eds. 2014):

"Polunin - Flowers of South-West Europe - revisited" (Vol. I - Introdução - 371 pp.) (->Download)

"Polunin - Flowers of South-West Europe - revisited" (Vol. II - Portugal - 1559 pp.) (-> Download)

(contains Web links to Flora-On for observed plant species, Web links to high resolution Google satellite-maps (JPG) of plant-hunting regions from the Iberian peninsula; illustrated text in Portuguese language)


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Flora da Serra da Boa Viagem - Folha de Cálculo - > 500 Taxa - > 5000 Fotografias, Scans e Chaves

Polunin - Flowers of South-West Europe - revisited - última compilação

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terça-feira, 29 de outubro de 2013

2.13.2c6 - Habitats rurais - Serra da Estrela




“Flowers of South-West Europe - a field guide” - de Oleg Polunin e B.E. Smythies


“Revisitas” de regiões  esquecidas no tempo - “Plant Hunting Regions” - a partir de uma obra de grande valor para o especialista e amador de botânica como da Natureza em geral.



Por
Horst Engels, Cecilia Sousa, Luísa Diniz, Nicole Engels, José Saraiva, Victor Rito
da
Associação “Trilhos d’Esplendor”



2.13 The Northern Serras of Portugal



2.13 As Serras do Norte de Portugal
2.13.2 Serra da Estrela
      1. Geografia, Clima, Geologia, Geomorfologia e Solos
      2. Bioclima, Biogeografia, Vegetação actual e potential
      3. Zona de Baixa Altitude (meso-temperada e meso-medetirrânica)
      1. Zona de Média Altitude (supra temperada e supra-mediterrânica)
      2. Zona de Alta Altitude (oro-temperada)
    1. Os Habitats da Serra da Estrela
      1. Ambientes rurais
        1. Vegetação de terras lavradas
        2. Biótopes ruderais
        3. Biótopes de terras pisadas
        4. Vegetação em paredes
    2. Os aspéctos glaciários da Serra da Estrela
    3. “Cultural Landscapes of Europe” - Serra da Estrela, uma paisagem tradicional
      1. Mudança climática e sucessão vegetational no Holocénico
      2. Acção antropogénica e degradação florestal no Holocénico
      3. Um modelo para a gestão da Serra da Estrela
    4. A Fauna da Serra da Estrela
      1. Observação de Aves na Serra da Estrela
      1. O Sítio Estrela
      2. Lista dos Habitats
      3. Introdução à Bioclimática
      4. Introdução à Biogeografia
      5. Introdução à Fitossociologia
Folha de Cálculo: Flora da Serra da Estrela
(Lista provisória de plantas vasculares e não-vasculares)


Mapas das Serras do Norte de Portugal:


2.13.2 Serra da Estrela (Ambientes rurais)




Sabugueiro, Serra da Estrela



Praia fluvial na Ribeira da Várzea/Rio Alva em Sabugueiro. No sítio da piscina, recentemente construida e onde o rio tinha antigamente uma pequena poça com acumulações de detritus, foi visto em 1971 (Engels, 1972) uma topeira aquática (Galemys pyrenaicus, Mammalia), espécie rara e endémica da Península Ibérica.



Topeira aquática (Galemys pyrenaicus)


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Sabugueiro, Serra da Estrela


Ambientes rurais


Introdução


A paisagem da Serra da Estrela tem sido profundamente afectada pelo homem. Já falamos sobre este aspecto no âmbito da deflorestação da Serra da Estrela (veja: Florestas). Esta modificação das paisagens começou há cerca de 7000 anos quando o homem começou a habitar a Serra da Estrela. A partir daí as florestas desaparecerem gradualmente. Começando com as culturas neolíticas, os Romanos, Visigodos, Arabes e povos judaicos deixaram as suas marcas culturais. Provavelmente  quase todas as comunidades de plantas foram alteradas, menos talvez as comunidades aquáticas (veja: Ambientes aquáticos) e rupícolas (veja: Ambientes rochosos). Novos biótopos semi-naturais emergeram com as práticas do pastoreio e das queimas na serra, biótopos primários perderam-se, a disponibilidade de novos nichos ecológicos em biótopos secundários levou a introdução de espécies que antes não existiam na Serra da Estrela. Hoje a actividade do pastoreio e da agricultura tradicional está em declive e a riqueza de biodiversidade nas paisagens antropogénicas está em perigo de se perder.
Jan Jansen escreve em 2002 que deste ao census em 1991 até ao census de 2001, a população da Serra da Estrela reduziu 5% e o espectro de actividades mudou para actividades de lazer em desfavor de actividades dos sectores primários (agricultura e silvicultura). Hoje verifica-se no census de 2011 que esta tendência ainda parece de estar a agravar-se porque a população portuguesa está a envelhecer cada vez mais, e com as pessoas idosas desaparecem também as actividades e culturas tradicionais.


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Índices de Envelhecimento em Portugal em 2001 e 2011
(Índice de Envelhecimento - Relação existente entre o número de idosos (população com 65 ou mais anos) e o número de jovens (população com 0-14 anos). Exprime-se habitualmente pelo número de idosos por cada 100 pessoas com 0-14 anos.)


No Census de 2011 pode ler se: “O envelhecimento da população representa um dos fenómenos demográficos mais preocupantes das sociedades modernas do século XXI. Este fenómeno tem marcadamente reflexos de âmbito sócio–económico com impacto no desenho das políticas sociais e de sustentabilidade, bem como alterações de índole individual através da adopção de novos estilos de vida.
Em Portugal, a proporção da população com 65 ou mais anos é, em 2011, de 19%. Este valor contrasta com os 8% verificados, em 1960, e com os 16% da década anterior. O índice de envelhecimento da população reflete também esta tendência. Em 2011 o índice de envelhecimento acentuou o predomínio da população idosa sobre a população jovem. Os resultados dos Censos 2011 indicam que o índice de envelhecimento do país é de 129, o que significa que Portugal tem hoje mais população idosa do que jovem. Em 2001 havia 85 municípios com o índice de envelhecimento menor ou igual a 100. Em 2011, este valor é de 45. O agravamento do envelhecimento da população portuguesa é praticamente comum à generalidade do território nacional. Apenas 16 dos 308 municípios apresentam em 2011 indicadores de envelhecimento inferiores aos verificados em 2001. O envelhecimento das populações também deixou de ser um fenómeno dos municípios do interior e alastra-se a todo território.”


Jan Jansen (2002) descreve as tendências do desenvolvimento demográfico e rural na Serra da Estrela da seguinte forma:


The Estrelean landscape has been profoundly affected by human activities. Anthropogenic influence started some seven millennia ago and since those days the original woodlands gradually disappeared (sec chapter 2). Starting from the Neolithic, various cultures have left their traces like Roman, Visigothic, Arab, and Judaic. Nearly all plant assemblages must have changed, perhaps except some of the aquatic and rupicolous communities treated in chapters 4 and 5 respectively. New semi-natural biotopes evolved from the long tradition of pastoralism and fanning, and with the continued loss of primary biotopes many species became dependent on them and subsequently on the farming practices that maintain them. Moreover a number of species from other parts of the world were able to invade spontaneously the new created biotopes, others were deliberately introduced (mostly cereals, vegetables, and fruits).
According to the last census (1991) the area or Serra da Estrela Natural Park is inhabited by some 44.000 persons, a decrease of about 5,5% compared to 1981. The employed count some 16.000. About 10% is working in agriculture and forestry. The bigger half is working in the secondary sector of which wool and textile industry employ some 6.000 persons. About one third is active in the tertiary sector with tourism gaining more and more significance. Most of the people live in villages that are situated at the foot of the mountain or in the valleys. Sabugueiro is the highest situated traditional village (over 1.100 m). Permanently inhabited settlements mount up to some 1.200 m. Small groups of farmhouses ('casais') are spread throughout the northern plateaus around Folgosinho and Videmonte. The holiday villages of Penhas da Saude and Penhas Douradas mount over 1.500 m showing the increasing importance of leisure activities .
The low-intensity traditional farming landscape shows high floristic and faunal diversity, especially where a variety of crops occur in relatively small fields within a matrix of various biotopes such as matos, grasslands, rivers, irrigation channels, walls and fallow lands. In addition to their importance for certain species and biotopes, these landscapes are also highly valued for their scenic qualities and cultural significance.


The extensively grazed matos and grasslands have been described in chapters 3 and 4 respectively (veja: Charnecas e matos e Formações herbáceas). They play an important role in the vegetation pattern of the landscape, as man and his grazing livestock are the driving force in relocating energy and nutrients from the 'outfields ' to the 'infields'.



Farming in Scotland (From: Wikipedia)



Casa em granito com horta e antigas estruturas de ‘infield’ no Vale do Zêzere (Serra da Estrela).




Most of the 'outfields' are common lands ('baldios') and include matos and open grasslands; 'infields' are situated closer to the settlements including mostly private arable lands, hay-meadows and horticultures. The transport of livestock and materials along an intricate network of paths from the 'outfields' to the settlements shows a distinct pattern including nitrophilous, ruderal, and trodden vegetation. The droppings of sheep and goats fertilize the communities that inhabit the various arable lands of the lower plateaus and terraced slopes. This may proceed directly during the period that the herds stay on the land (sometimes overnight in moveable fences) or indirectly by using shrubs and other plants as bedding in the stable, which is subsequently mixed with manure and finally put on the land. Most of the vegetation in the area is directly or indirectly related to the long history of pastoralism.



Transumância na Serra da Estrela (From Jansen, J. 2002)


In ancient times, from autumn to spring many shepherds migrated long distances (transhumance) as far as the Douro basin in the north, Idanha in the south-east or even Alentejo in the south. ln spring they travelled back with their flocks of sheep and goats over certain drove-roads to the high pastures of the Serra da Estrela.
At lower elevations there was grazing throughout the year. The long-distance movements diminished after the Second World War, nowadays being little more than local movements. In addition the number of goats and sheep of the six municipalities that enclose the Natural Park decreased from the I940's to 1978 with some fifty percent (goats from 32,000 to 10,500: sheep from 31,000 to 18,500 ). From the tradition of pastoralism two indigenous breeds of sheep originated, the Mondegueira and the Bordaleira da Serra da Estrela.





Raças de ovelha:  Mondegueira




Raças de ovelha: Bordaleira Serra da Estrela


The latter is considered the best breed for milk production. To produce the famous Serra da Estrela cheese a vegetable coagulant, taken from the flowers of the Cardoon (port. cardo-do-coalho)  (Cynara cardunculus),  





is added to the milk.



Flor do cardo - usado para coalugação do leite na produção de queijo


The strong Serra da Estrela shepherd dog (Cão Serra da Estrela) was bred to guard and "defend the herds against wolves.



Cão na Serra da Estrela


Goats of the Serrana breed originated from the Serra da Estrela are the most common breed in the country, being predominantly present north of the Tagus river.






Cabra Serrana


During the past decades mountainous regions in the Mediterranean suffer from socio-economic marginalisation (quite a contrast to the increasing interest in coastal areas). The result is a drastic drop of the population and their agricultural activities. The situation in the Estrela is not an exception.
Under the present circumstances the agro-pastoral system is doomed to collapse and eventually the traditional cultural landscape will largely vanish. The diversity of semi-natural biotopes will be largely sacrificed for the uniformity of same age-class afforestation with foreign tree species, triggering both the increase of fire hazards and the decrease of biodiversity. Old genetic local breeds (both crops and livestock) will erode and be replaced by non-indigenous breeds or perhaps by genetically manipulated mutants. One of the biggest problems is the increasing globalisation of the markets. Cheap agro-industrial bulk products from elsewhere (often subsidised by the EU) invade the local market. Most of these agro-industries have strong negative impacts on the environment. The tradition of low intensity land use is more in compliance with ecologically sound management. However, without a socio-economic basis this awareness is not enough. Sustainability may be the magic word. Perhaps the rural economy would revive if policies would steer towards stimulating the labelling and denomination of its high quality products, its gastronomy, eco-tourism. organic farming, handicrafts, and its traditional architecture. Perhaps just because the area was indeed isolated and disadvantaged, there is still a chance to offer products and services that can hardly be maintained in densely populated areas. Food produced in the Estrela can fulfil modern requirement to the highest degree. The products do not contain any or hardly any foreign substances. Their sale would help the traditional culture and the management of a unique ecosystem, maintaining diversity and quality of the landscape. Major urban markets may provide enough demands. The last few years there is a growing interest in healthy food and "back to nature" . May the natural and cultural heritage act as an inspiration source for modern (urban) people, thus (re-)connecting them with their historical roots? Going back to the description of the landscape one important pattern should be noted, namely that the intensity with which biotopes are affected by farming decreases at increasing distances from the villages and farms, in other words from the 'infields' to the 'outfields'.


Horticultures usually occupy small pieces of land (’minifundios’) and are situated near to settlements. They include intensive cultures of vegetables, root crops, fruits and ornamental flowers, often cultivated in alternating strips of different crops.
Amongst the vegetables there are cabbages (Brassica spp.) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vicia faba); amongst the root crops there are carrots (Daucus carota),  onions (Allium cepa), and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum}; maize (Zea mais) is frequently there too; amongst the fruits there are vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera), olives (Olea europaea subsp. europaea), apples (Malus domestica), pears (Pyrus communis), and cherries (Prunus avium), Occasionally a rich variety of other fruits are grown like walnut (Juglans regia), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus domestica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), almond (Prunus dulcis), quince (Cydonia oblonga) loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), pomegranate (Punica granaturn), orange (Citrus sinensis), and lime (Citrus limon).
At some distance and often throughout the valleys agricultural lands generally include larger fields of root crops and vegetables (mainly potato. maize, and turnip: Brassica rapa), cereals (rye: Secale cereale, oat: Avena sativa), orchards and meadows. Terraces slopes enlarge the agricultural area and facilitate irrigation. Vineyards and chestnut groves are mostly planted on slopes; major slope areas have been afforested with mainly Maritime pine. The rounded plateaus are largely covered with rye fields, which do not need to be irrigated. The remaining area is more or less covered by matos (charnecas). grasslands (veja: herbáceas), aquatic (veja: aquáticas) and rupicolous (veja: rochosas) formations.




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couves (Brassica spp.)
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couve-flor (Brassica spp.)
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fava (Vicia faba)
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cenoura (Daucus carota)
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beterraba (Beta spp.)
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cebola (Allium cepa)
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milho (Zea mais)
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maçã - macieira (Malus domestica)
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pera - pereira (Pyrus communis)
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cereja - cerejeira (Prunus avium)
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noz - nogueira-comum (Juglans regia)
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pêssego - pessegueiro (Prunus persica)
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ameixa - ameixeira (Prunus domestica)
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alperce - damasqueiro (Prunus armeniaca)
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amendoa - amendoeira (Prunus dulcis)
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marmelo - marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga)
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romã - romãzeira (Punica granaturn)
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laranja - laranjeira (Citrus sinensis)
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limão - limoeiro (Citrus limon)











In the following some agricultural and other major man-made biotopes are distinguished with respect to vegetation.



1. Vegetação de terras lavradas (vegetation of tilled soils)


These formations include communities of recently tilled soils, mainly from digging or ploughing. Many of the plant assemblages are optimally developed on arable lands, but some can also be found along roadsides and on building lands. The environment of arable lands is influenced by two major factors: disturbance of the continuous development of plant species through grubbing and ploughing, and through the sudden supply of nutrients (artificial or organic fertilizers). In such a dynamic environment most species can survive due to their life form (most of them are annuals), the production of large quantities of seed (to survive the unfavourable period) and in some cases the storage of nutrients in subterranean bulbs, rootstocks and tubers. The rhizomes of several perennial shrubs and the rosettes of biennial herbs are not completely eliminated by the traditional ploughing methods. Some species may germinate in the undisturbed environment between the furrows. However, modern tilling techniques seem to eliminate most of the species, not to mention the use of herbicides. The traditionally managed arable lands in the Estrela still provide species- rich weed communities. These are expected to vanish in the future, as the use of modern techniques will increase. Moreover nowadays woodland plantations, drastically changing the landscape of the northern planes around Folgosinho and Videmonte, replace numerous rye fields.


Weed communities (“ervas daninhas”) may be divided into those from root crops and vegetables or those from cereals (e.g. rye, oat) sown in autumn. The former group usually hosts more nitrophilous species, because as a rule they are more heavily manured than a cereal crop. This may also explain their stronger connection to ruderal vegetation. Weeds from cereal fields may show up in therophytic grasslands  and vice versa, hampering a clear distinction. Moreover most root crops and vegetables are tillage crops whereas cereals are no-tillage cropping systems. A switch from tillage to no-tillage cropping systems generally creates a shift in weed species. Over time, small-seeded annual broad-leaf weeds and perennial weeds become more prevalent in no-tillage fields. There are no systematic studies on weed communities therefore the various communities cannot be presented.


In the Estrela at least the following species may be considered characteristic for recently tilled soils:



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Stellaria media

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Vicia villosa subsp. varia
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Papaver hybridum




2. Biótopes ruderais (ruderal biotopes)


Ruderal biotopes are characterized by the irregular supply of relocated materials, caused by man or animal, rivers or by erosion. This supply includes dung, alluvial deposits, building materials, waste, etc. which all bring about eutrophication. Many ruderal species and farmland species are not indigenous species, but are brought in from other parts of the world. Some already arrived in the Neolithic others in Roman times, some date from the period of the great discoveries, and some came recently. Ruderal environments often have a ribbon-shaped or pointed appearance. They occur along road sides, fences, hedges, walls , riverbanks, near stables, construction sites, etc.
The floristic composition of ruderal vegetation is quite diverse, depending on soil texture, temperature (aspect, light), humidity, topography and other factors. A distinct separation from nutrient-demanding vegetation of both forest fringes and woodland felling areas is often difficult. In fact such biotopes are also exposed to a sudden supply of materials such as from leaf fall and erosion on slopes and road-cuts.
Analogous to woodland fringe assemblages, ruderal communities may be subdivided into those from relatively humid and shaded sites (1) and those from drier sunny sites (2). Both include nitrophilous and subnitrophilous communities mostly consisting of tall herbs (often perennials and biennials) susceptible to trampling. Some typical representatives of both groups are marked. Species of the first group are marked with 1 and of the second group with 2.


At least the following species occur in the Estrela:






3. Biótopes de terras pisadas (trampled biotopes)


This type of vegetation mainly exists of annuals which grow on or along migratory ways like roads, lanes, paths, trucks and trails or other places where people or animals frequently pass, for instance near fountains, pavements, side-walks, squares and yards.


In the Estrela at least the following species occur:




When soil is trampled its texture becomes more compact and as a result water tends to stay at the surface instead of draining in the deeper layers. Therefore especially in shallow depressions along the roads species from temporally inundated habitats may become involved. Most of the characteristic species have a wide distribution and for this reason common pavement vegetation in Manteigas, Lisbon, Paris or London do not differ very much.
Increase of grazing and trampling in perennial pastures favours certain species (e.g. Cynosurus cristatus, Trifolium repens, Nardus stricta. Therophytic grasslands tend to become predominated by Bulbous meadow-grass (Poa bulbosa) an interesting grass that may occur in the upper belt, but more commonly occurs at lower elevations. It may be seen in a viviparous form: its flowers are replaced by green plantlets that sprout tiny leaves and fall off and root. Bulbous meadow-grass is bulbous at its base and often clothed with remains of old sheaths.



Poa bulbosa (From: Wikipedia)



Through this characteristic grazing sheep often pull it up, for they have no teeth in the upper jaw and so they spread the bulbs in the grazed area or along migratory ways. In this manner Bulbous meadow-grass pastures are partly linked to the ancient trails of the transhumance and are widely spread in the Iberian Peninsula. The pastures may host other bulbous plant species such as the rare Dipcadi serotinum and the more common Merendera montana that has crocus-like flowers, which only appear in August or later. Jersey Buttercup (Ranunculus paludosus) has a markedly swollen stem base underground. Another characteristic species is Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum), a clover that pushes down its pods by elongated stalks. Bulbous meadow-grass pastures have small extensions in the Estrela. They are much better developed in the south, especially in depressions of the montados .
At higher altitudes trampled vegetation, enriched with nutrients from livestock droppings, may include Creeping meadow-grass (Poa supina) and Spergularia rubra subsp. capillacea.



Spergularia rubra subsp. capillacea - perto de Torre, Serra da Estrela


The former is very rare, but the latter can be easily observed in summer displaying fine purple-flowered mats along the roads, around parking lots and ski-lifts near Torre, and in shallow depressions in pastures of the upper belt. In fact it concerns most of the situations where there is both nutrient enrichment and trampling, like resting areas for livestock or game, favourite picnic areas, and spots in use for defecation and urination.





Lolium grasslands are both nutrient-demanding and adapted to trampling. Most of the stands have been sown and are highly artificial short-term grasslands used for grazing or mowing in rotation with arable fanning. They are popular with fanners throughout Europe because of their high production yield. Lolium grasslands have low species diversity and are not attractive to nature conservation at all. In fact they are a kind of green deserts where hardly any herbs nor insects or birds occur. Their low-diversity is not only related to the seed mixture used. It is also related to the fact that being heavily fertilized, Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) become highly competitive. In addition many other species do not withstand the mechanical damage of trampling animals that browse the vegetation.
Both Lolium species are often joined by annuals like Annual meadow-grass (Poa annua) and Equal-leaved knotgrass (Polygonum arenastrum), Besides for agricultural means Lolium grasslands are also wanted for recreation. For instance most football fields consist of Lolium perenne carpets . Fortunately Lolium grasslands are nut common in the Estrela, in contrast to large parts of Europe where these modern grasslands occupy large areas replacing the traditionally managed species-rich meadows. The latter are extremely vulnerable and of high nature conservation interest. However, it is feared that they will decrease in favour of the Lolium grasslands since farmers search new ways to improve the production of fodder.


4. Vegetação em paredes (wall vegetation)


This vegetation can be found on granite and schist walls (sometimes brick walls) along roads, in villages, around farmhouses, horticultures and pastures, along roads. etc. The species in these biotopes are adapted to a vertical substrate. Their roots penetrate the fissures and cracks of the walls and receive nutrient-rich substances from nearby fertilized land. The abundance of nutrients mostly comes from run-off particles or even from the evaporation of ammonia from the foot of the walls. Wall vegetation varies both in cover and floristic composition depending on aspect, humidity and other factors (e.g. granite, schist, presence and kind of mortar).


Characteristic species are:





Besides these characteristic species wall vegetation provides conditions for nitrophilous ruderals and other weeds. Especially in less nitrified rocky areas, other rupicolcus species (veja: rupiculous) may join them, like Anarrhinum bellidifolium, Anogramma leptophylla, Asplenium trichomanes , Ceterach officinarum, Phagnalon saxatile, Polypodium interjectum, Rumex induratus, Saxifraga fragosoi, Saxifraga spathularis, Sedum anglicum subsp. pyrenaicum, Sedum brevifolium, and Sedum hirsutum.




Como já foi mencionado por Jan Jansen (2002): ultimamente foram observados vacas nas pastagens no Alto da Serra da Estrela. Não se sabe ainda quais as consequências para a flora sensível desta região perante esta inovação. Sabes que Portugal viveu sempre com grande fê. E segundo a visão às vezes pessimista que o desenvolvimento da demografia na Serra da Estrela impõe e que foi apresentada nestas últimas contribuições do blogue baseadas sobretudo nos trabalhos valiosos de ecologia vegetal, antropologia cultural e fitossociologia de Jan Jansen (2002 e 2011), fê será provavelmente necessário. Mas além da fê será de certeza necessário um conceito de gestão silvo-pastoral e da agricultura na Serra da Estrela que permita futuramente manter a biodiversidade elevada ainda existente na serra.
Será um modelo de gestão já bastante antigo e comprovado na Europa nos últimos séculos que foi proposto por Jan Jansen em 2011 e que vamos discutir nos capítulos seguintes.




Senhora da Boa Estrela - padroeira dos Pastores. Covão do Boi - Serra da Estrela.





Senhora da Boa Estrela - padroeira dos Pastores. Covão do Boi - Serra da Estrela.





Vaca na pastagem - Covão do Boi - Serra da Estrela.




Covão do Boi - Serra da Estrela.


E ainda um link para uma nova opção na FLORA-ON - a pesquisa geográfica. Experimente a pesquisa sobre a “Flora da Área protegida da Serra da Estrela” que completa e actualiza a lista das espécies acima indicadas:



Pesquisa “Serra da Estrela” na FLORA-ON




Veja à seguir: 13. The Northern Serras of Portugal (Serra da Estrela (Aspectos Glaciários - d1))



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