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(contains Web links to Flora-On for observed plant species, Web links to high resolution Google satellite-maps (JPG) of plant-hunting regions from the Iberian peninsula; illustrated text in Portuguese language)

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segunda-feira, 27 de agosto de 2012

Flowers of South-West Europe revisited (Prefácio)

“Flowers of South-West Europe - a field guide” - de Oleg Polunin e B.E. Smythies
“Revisitas” de regiões  esquecidas no tempo - “Plant Hunting Regions” - a partir de uma obra de grande valor para o especialista e amador de botânica como da Natureza em geral.
Horst Engels, Cecilia Sousa, Luísa Diniz, Nicole Engels, José Saraiva, Victor Rito
Associação “Trilhos d’Esplendor”
(From: Swann’s Way (Volume 1) - À la recherche du temps perdu  ( In Search of Lost Time [1] ; earlier translated as Remembrance of Things Past )  - de Marcel Proust)
I feel that there is much to be said for the Celtic belief that the souls of those whom we have lost are held captive in some inferior being, in an animal, in a plant, in some inanimate object, and so effectively lost to us until the day (which to many never comes) when we happen to pass by the tree or to obtain possession of the object which forms their prison. Then they start and tremble, they call us by our name, and as soon as we have recognised their voice the spell is broken. We have delivered them: they have overcome death and return to share our life.
And so it is with our own past. It is a labour in vain to attempt to recapture it: all the efforts of our intellect must prove futile. The past is hidden somewhere outside the realm, beyond the reach of intellect, in some material object (in the sensation which that material object will give us) which we do not suspect. And as for that object, it depends on chance whether we come upon it or not before we ourselves must die.
Many years had elapsed during which nothing of Combray, save what was comprised in the theatre and the drama of my going to bed there, had any existence for me, when one day in winter, as I came home, my mother, seeing that I was cold, offered me some tea, a thing I did not ordinarily take. I declined at first, and then, for no particular reason, changed my mind. She sent out for one of those short, plump little cakes called 'petites madeleines,' which look as though they had been moulded in the fluted scallop of a pilgrim's shell. And soon, mechanically, weary after a dull day with the prospect of a depressing morrow, I raised to my lips a spoonful of the tea in which I had soaked a morsel of the cake. No sooner had the warm liquid, and the crumbs with it, touched my palate than a shudder ran through my whole div, and I stopped, intent upon the extraordinary changes that were taking place. An exquisite pleasure had invaded my senses, but individual, detached, with no suggestion of its origin. And at once the vicissitudes of life had become indifferent to me, its disasters innocuous, its brevity illusory—this new sensation having had on me the effect which love has of filling me with a precious essence; or rather this essence was not in me, it was myself. I had ceased now to feel mediocre, accidental, mortal. Whence could it have come to me, this all-powerful joy? I was conscious that it was connected with the taste of tea and cake, but that it infinitely transcended those savours, could not, indeed, be of the same nature as theirs. Whence did it come? What did it signify? How could I seize upon and define it?
I drink a second mouthful, in which I find nothing more than in the first, a third, which gives me rather less than the second. It is time to stop; the potion is losing its magic. It is plain that the object of my quest, the truth, lies not in the cup but in myself. The tea has called up in me, but does not itself understand, and can only repeat indefinitely with a gradual loss of strength, the same testimony; which I, too, cannot interpret, though I hope at least to be able to call upon the tea for it again and to find it there presently, intact and at my disposal, for my final enlightenment. I put down my cup and examine my own mind. It is for it to discover the truth. But how? What an abyss of uncertainty whenever the mind feels that some part of it has strayed beyond its own borders; when it, the seeker, is at once the dark region through which it must go seeking, where all its equipment will avail it nothing. Seek? More than that: create. It is face to face with something which does not so far exist, to which it alone can give reality and substance, which it alone can bring into the light of day.
And I begin again to ask myself what it could have been, this unremembered state which brought with it no logical proof of its existence, but only the sense that it was a happy, that it was a real state in whose presence other states of consciousness melted and vanished. I decide to attempt to make it reappear. I retrace my thoughts to the moment at which I drank the first spoonful of tea. I find again the same state, illumined by no fresh light. I compel my mind to make one further effort, to follow and recapture once again the fleeting sensation. And that nothing may interrupt it in its course I shut out every obstacle, every extraneous idea, I stop my ears and inhibit all attention to the sounds which come from the next room. And then, feeling that my mind is growing fatigued without having any success to report, I compel it for a change to enjoy that distraction which I have just denied it, to think of other things, to rest and refresh itself before the supreme attempt. And then for the second time I clear an empty space in front of it. I place in position before my mind's eye the still recent taste of that first mouthful, and I feel something start within me, something that leaves its resting-place and attempts to rise, something that has been embedded like an anchor at a great depth; I do not know yet what it is, but I can feel it mounting slowly; I can measure the resistance, I can hear the echo of great spaces traversed.
Undoubtedly what is thus palpitating in the depths of my being must be the image, the visual memory which, being linked to that taste, has tried to follow it into my conscious mind. But its struggles are too far off, too much confused; scarcely can I perceive the colourless reflection in which are blended the uncapturable whirling medley of radiant hues, and I cannot distinguish its form, cannot invite it, as the one possible interpreter, to translate to me the evidence of its contemporary, its inseparable paramour, the taste of cake soaked in tea; cannot ask it to inform me what special circumstance is in question, of what period in my past life.
Will it ultimately reach the clear surface of my consciousness, this memory, this old, dead moment which the magnetism of an identical moment has travelled so far to importune, to disturb, to raise up out of the very depths of my being? I cannot tell. Now that I feel nothing, it has stopped, has perhaps gone down again into its darkness, from which who can say whether it will ever rise? Ten times over I must essay the task, must lean down over the abyss. And each time the natural laziness which deters us from every difficult enterprise, every work of importance, has urged me to leave the thing alone, to drink my tea and to think merely of the worries of to-day and of my hopes for to-morrow, which let themselves be pondered over without effort or distress of mind.
And suddenly the memory returns. The taste was that of the little crumb of madeleine which on Sunday mornings at Combray (because on those mornings I did not go out before church-time), when I went to say good day to her in her bedroom, my aunt Léonie used to give me, dipping it first in her own cup of real or of lime-flower tea. The sight of the little madeleine had recalled nothing to my mind before I tasted it; perhaps because I had so often seen such things in the interval, without tasting them, on the trays in pastry-cooks' windows, that their image had dissociated itself from those Combray days to take its place among others more recent; perhaps because of those memories, so long abandoned and put out of mind, nothing now survived, everything was scattered; the forms of things, including that of the little scallop-shell of pastry, so richly sensual under its severe, religious folds, were either obliterated or had been so long dormant as to have lost the power of expansion which would have allowed them to resume their place in my consciousness. But when from a long-distant past nothing subsists, after the people are dead, after the things are broken and scattered, still, alone, more fragile, but with more vitality, more unsubstantial, more persistent, more faithful, the smell and taste of things remain poised a long time, like souls, ready to remind us, waiting and hoping for their moment, amid the ruins of all the rest; and bear unfaltering, in the tiny and almost impalpable drop of their essence, the vast structure of recollection.
And once I had recognized the taste of the crumb of madeleine soaked in her decoction of lime-flowers which my aunt used to give me (although I did not yet know and must long postpone the discovery of why this memory made me so happy) immediately the old grey house upon the street, where her room was, rose up like the scenery of a theatre to attach itself to the little pavilion, opening on to the garden, which had been built out behind it for my parents (the isolated panel which until that moment had been all that I could see); and with the house the town, from morning to night and in all weathers, the Square where I was sent before luncheon, the streets along which I used to run errands, the country roads we took when it was fine. And just as the Japanese amuse themselves by filling a porcelain bowl with water and steeping in it little crumbs of paper which until then are without character or form, but, the moment they become wet, stretch themselves and bend, take on colour and distinctive shape, become flowers or houses or people, permanent and recognisable, so in that moment all the flowers in our garden and in M. Swann's park, and the water-lilies on the Vivonne and the good folk of the village and their little dwellings and the parish church and the whole of Combray and of its surroundings, taking their proper shapes and growing solid, sprang into being, town and gardens alike, from my cup of tea.

1.0 Prefácio

Polunin & Smythies  escrevem 1987 no prefácio da sua obra:
This book is designed for the traveller in Portugal , Spain and southwestern France (west of the Rhone and south of the Loire) as a readily portable guide to the most botanically in teresting and most beautiful regions of south-western Europe.
The text is in two main sections: the first part describes in outline the twenty -three botanically richest regions in the south-west.   The most interesting or characteristic species are named, and indications given of where these plants may be found. The double-page drawings done by Jill Smythies from collections and observations in the field give, for many of these regions, a region-by-region selection of some of these plants and should, in particular, help the beginner to name many species. The second part  of the guide is concerned with the identification of species by means of keys and short diagnostic descriptions.
This field guide, though it can stand alone, is planned to be used in conjunction with the 'mother ' volume Flowers of Europe , which describes and illustrates most of Europe's widespread species. The majority of these are not re-described in this volume, although some which a reparticularly characteristic of the south-west may be described again more briefly. However, in chapter 3 all plants illustrated in Flowers of Europe  are indicated by a **  in this regional volume. The publication of three subsequent regional volumes will give a unique collection of plant photographs taken in the field in all parts of Europe. There will, of course, be some duplication in the colour illustrations: some characteristic species of each region will be illustrated again by new photographs taken in that region, despite their appearance in Flowers of Europe .
The selection and identification of species
A probable total of well over 6,000 species of seed plants  is to be found wild in the area covered by this volume. As the aim of this book is to be a true working field guide, there has been, once again, the difficult problem of selection to keep the book to a reasonable size. In consequence, certain families - often 'difficult' families with insignificant flowers where some botanical training and experience is need ed to arrive at the correct identification of species, have been largely omitted or treated summarily. In particular, the Polygonaceae , Chenopodiaceae , Euphorbiaceae ,   Umbelliferae , Cyperaceae  and Gramineae  have been given very brief treatment, with descriptions of only a very small proportion of species - those that are conspicuous or in other ways notable. For similar reasons, many of the largest genera have been considerably curtailed, and only those species which have been encountered by the authors on their travels, or are well represented in recent collections, have been included. As a high proportion of excluded species are endemic Iberian species, or restricted to limited areas, their absence will not, it is hoped , cause dismay except to the most diligent of plant-hunters. Other species of the larger genera, which are more widely distributed elsewhere in Europe, and will qualify for entry into other regional volumes, have also been excluded. Examples of genera receiving such limited treatment are : Arenaria , Saxifraga , Genista , Astragalus , Trifolium , Limonium , and Centaurea .
The experienced European botanist will surely understand the need for this selectivity and will appreciate that the requirements of the amateur are in all probability better served by keeping the volume within these bounds. To find any such excluded species the botanist must turn to the local (and often outdated) flora, or to Flora Europaea, the first two volumes of which have been published at the time of writing, out of a total of five.
A great many genera have been treated in full. And in these all southwestern species are included either in the form of keys or by short individual descriptions, or both. In the larger genera in which only a proportion of the species are described, the total number of species found in our area is given; in genera with full treatment the total number is self-evident.
For reasons of space the keys to families and to genera, and the brief diagnoses of the genera are not given; these will be found in Flowers of Europe . The numbering of species may initially seem complex, but the numbers have been designed as additions to those already used in Flowers of Europe : a continuous numbering system will be used in all the regional volumes. This greatly facilitates not only refer en ce between volumes, but also between the illustrations and the text. For example , in the genus Saxifraga : 404, (404), 404a , 404b, are similar species in some ways and have the same basic number: the first two occur in Flowers of Europe (and in this volume), the second two occur only in th is volume.
It has been estimated by a reliable authority, who is in th e process of preparing a Red Data book of rare and threatened plants, that about ten per cent of all species of flowering plants - something like 20,000 species - are in danger of extinction in the world. The danger comes from many sources. In the French Mediterranean region, for example, the most serious threats are urbanization, tourist development, hydro-electric schemes, rice culture, wine-growing extensions, use of herbicides, pollution, airfields, conifer plantations, over-grazing, horticultural vandalism, and depredation by collectors. Only the last two are the immediate concern of naturalists in the field ; and with the great increase of mobility, leisure, and communications, these particular threats are (like the others) undoubtedly on the increase. In the majority of circumstances the individual can do little to counteract these dangers to plants or to vegetation in a foreign country, except, it is suggested, to pass on information to the appropriate authority of the country concerned.
International European co-operation i s not yet sufficiently developed for a central dossier of threatened plants to be kept; yet international pressures on the countries concerned may well be the ultimate means by which active steps for the conservation of a species or community of plants and animals are undertaken. The authors suggest that individual s should give information about threatened plants in the area covered by this volume to one of the following societies:
The Portuguese League for the Protection of Nature
Faculdade de Ciencies
Lisbon 2
Agrupación Española de Amigos de la Naturaleza
Plaza de Santo Domingo 16, 4"
Federation Francaise des Societe e de Protection de la Nature
Museum Nationale d'Histoire Naturelle
57 rue Cuvier
Paris Ve
The most vulnerable areas in Europe are undoubtedly the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean Islands, the Alps, and the Balkan Peninsula. The first and last have the richest floras in Europe and it is possible that something like 200-300 species are in imminent danger of extinction in these areas alone.
It is inevitable in a volume of this nature that the whereabouts of a considerable number of rare species is revealed. While this information has, in almost every case, been previously published, mainly in inaccessible or obscure journals, it cannot be denied that it is , for the first time, being made available to a much wider public. The authors take the view that a knowledge of the locality of a rarity may, in the long run, focus attention on its preservation, and in consequence rarities have been marked by an appropriate symbol: . Species marked in this way should not be disturbed or collected, unless they occur in considerable numbers in the particular locality. Other species which, though not threatened in Europe as a whole, may be in danger in a particular country or region, have also been marked in this way.
To those who have benefited from the information given in this volume, we would urge that they lend their full support to any national or international organization which is furthering the work of conserving the extremely rich and unique heritage of wildlife in this continent.
The authors recommend the following guide lines  to the botanist and plant-hunter in foreign countries.
1. Photography is one of the most rewarding and least damaging methods of plant collecting, but care must be taken to ensure that the damage to the surrounding vegetation by trampling and 'gardening' does not harm the environment or reveal the plant's whereabouts to unscrupulous people.
2. Critical species cannot be identified by photographs alone, and the only sure method is to collect and dry specimens . These retain almost all their botanical characters, except of course colour, and can be identified later at leisure . Collecting specimens must be done with care and forethought to the future of the particular colony of plants from which they are taken. Do not remove any whole plant or an unusual species from an area unless there are a considerable number of the same species in the vicinity. The removal of ripening fruits and the collection of seeds is certainly permissible, and carefully taken cuttings need not damage a plant. Dried fruits and seeds can be brought into the British Isles without any restrictions. Living plants or parts of living plants, including ' bulbs and corms, require a permit for entry. There are a few species which it is prohibited to import.
3. To avoid suspicion always try to inform local people what you are about. Collecting of supposedly 'medicinal' plants always causes great interest, and often results in the revelation of interesting local 'uses' of plants, as well as ready help with your search.
4. Do not collect in Nature Reserves.
O livro “ Flowers of South-West Europe - a field guide ” de “ Polunin & Smythies ”  é designado para o visitante de Portugal , da Espanha  e do Sul-Oeste da França  (ouest do rio Ródano  (Rhône) e sul do rio Loire ) e constitui um guia portátil bem ilustrado para as regiões de maior interesse botânico e das paisagens mais deslumbrantes do Sul-Oeste da Europa.

Rio Rodano (Rhone)  (from Wikipédia)
Rio Loire (from Wikipédia)
O texto está dividido em duas secções: a primeira parte descreve as 23 regiões de maior interesse botânico do sul-oeste. São indicados para as diversa regiões os nomes e locais das espécies características e interessantes. Desenhos em quadros (elaborados por Jill Smythies) para espécies das regiões completam as descrições e ajudam ao visitante identificar rapidamente visualmente muitas das espécies aí encontradas.
A segunda parte do guia dedica-se à identificação e contém chaves e descrições diagnósticas das espécies.
Este guia de campo, embora usável isoladamente, está designado para ser usado em conjunto com o guia ilustrado “ Flowers of Europe ” (1969) de Oleg Pulinin  que descreve a maioria das espécies mais comuns da Europa, com chaves de identificação para famílias e espécies e fotografias das espécies. Também este volume tem uma série de quadros com desenhos de espécies.
A maioria das espécies descritas no volume “ Flowers of Europe ” não são redescritas no volume “ Flowers of South-West Europe ”, mas apenas indicadas por um duplo asterísco (**) quando houver descrições com fotografias no volume “ Flowers of Europe ”. Por isso, o volume “ Flowers of South-West Europe ” contém sobretudo as espécies mais características ou endémicas  (plantas que ocorrem apenas nesta região) da flora de Sul-Oeste da Europa.

A selecção e identificação das espécies

Na região coberta pelo volume do “ Polunin & Smythies ” existem mais do que 6000 espécies de plantas selvagens. Como o livro foi concebido como um guia de campo, mais para amadores e sobretudo pelo botânico viajante nesta região e não necessariamente para especialistas em determinados grupos ou famílias (taxones) de plantas, não todas as espécies são descritas no volume  e algumas famílias mais ‘difíceis’, devido à flores muito pequenas e/ou diferenças morfológicas súbtis, foram incluídas apenas sumariamente. Em particular, isso são as famílias de Polygonaceae , Chenopodiaceae , Euphorbiaceae , Umbelliferae , Cyperaceae  e Gramineae  - que foram abrangidas apenas marginalmente e com uma descrição apenas das espécies mais notáveis e de mais fácil identificação.
O especialista da botânica deve compreender esta selectividade e tem neste momento à sua disposição uma obra excelente de botânica, embora ainda não concluída, mas bastante avançada na sua edição, a “ Flora Iberica ” que na altura quando foi publicado o “ Polunin & Smythies ” ainda nem existia.
No entanto, um número elevado de géneros está tratado exaustivamente no “ Polunin & Smythies ” - e nestes, todas as espécies da área coberta pelo volume estão incluídas nas chaves e/ou por uma pequena descrição diagnóstico. No entanto, chaves para famílias e os restantes géneros não foram incluídas no livro, mas encontram-se no livro “ Flowers of Europe ”.


Polunin & Smythies ” escreveram na altura da publicação do livro que existiam estimativas que 10% de 20.000 espécies (?número de espécies avaliadas?) estariam em vias de extinção no mundo inteiro.
Esta ameaça tinha diversas causas. As mais severas ameaças, por exemplo na região mediterrânica da França, seriam urbanização, desenvolvimento turístico, centrais hidro-eléctricas, cultivo do arroz, extensões de vinhas, uso de herbicidas, poluição, aeroportos, plantações de coníferas, sobrepastoreio, vandalismo e coleccionadores de plantas. Apenas as 2 últimas causas são causas directas, todas as outras são indirectas; mas com o aumento da mobilidade humana estas últimas causas de ameaça para a conservação das espécies na região iam provavelmente aumentar.
Estamos na altura de poder comparar os prognósticos de “ Polunin & Smythies ” com o números de prognósticos actuais. Para já, o número de espécies de plantas com flores (Angiospermae) está estimado neste momento em cerca de 400.000. De 60.000 espécies avaliadas, 34.000 espécies foram consideradas ameaçadas nas Listas Vermelhas do IUCN. Com um sistema mais actualizado de classificação, de 11.000 espécies avaliadas 8000 espécies foram consideradas ameaçadas pelo IUCN. Ao nível nacional na Grã Bretagne (UK) a percentagem de espécies ameaçadas é actualmente estimado em 20% [2]  e ao nível europeu em ca de 34% [3] .
 Isto são percentagens bastante mais altas do que no tempo de “ Polunin & Smythies ” e uma estimativa conservadora é que neste momento 1 de 4 plantas em tudo o Mundo estão ameaçadas de extinção.  E sem dúvida, os conhecimentos científicos dos acontecimentos actuais como o aquecimento global e/ou desequilíbrios nas camadas de ozone etc. (que há 30 anos ainda não foram problemas ambientais reconhecidas ou existentes - ou pelo menos desconhecidos) devem contribuir para estes prognósticos alarmantes recentes. Mas também o crescimento demográfico da população humana (de cerca de 4 biliões para 7 biliões neste espaço de tempo desde à publicação da obra de “ Polunin & Smythies ” até agora - e o crescimento demográfico da espécie humana para possivelmente 10 biliões de pessoas daqui há 30-50 anos), deve entrar nestas estimativas e não deixa muita esperança para um melhoramento do estado de conservação das plantas no futuro.
Na maioria dos casos um indivíduo só não pode fazer muito para salvar uma espécie que foi detectada de estar ameaçada. Mas existem organizações onde se pode prestar informação caso que se verifica uma ameaça para uma espécie ou comunidade de plantas numa região:
Instituo da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas (ICNF)


Avenida da República, 16
Tel.: (351) 213 507 900
Tel.: (351) 213 124 800

Atendimento geral / Caça e pesca / CITES
Horário: 9h30 - 12h30 | 13h30 - 16h30
Avenida da República, 16
Telef.: (351) 213 507 900

Caça e pesca:

The Portuguese League for The Protection of Nature (LPN)
Estrada do Calhariz de Benfica, 187
1500-124 Lisboa
Tel:  +351 217 780 097
+351 217 740 155
+351 217 740 176
Tlm:  +351 964 656 033
Associação Nacional de Conservação de Natureza
Sede e Secretariado da Direcção Nacional
Centro Associativo do Calhau
Bairro do Calhau
Parque Florestal de Monsanto
1500-045 Lisboa
Telefone: 21 778 8474
Fax: 21 778 7749
Área de Conservación de la Naturaleza
Ecologistas en Acción
Marqués de Leganés, 12 - 28004 Madrid
Phone: +34 915312389, Fax: +34 915312611
Société nationale de protection de la nature
9, rue Cels
75014 Paris
Accueil :  du lundi au vendredi de 9h à 12h30 et de 13h30 à 17h
Téléphone : 01 43 20 15 39
Télécopie : 01 43 20 15 71
Courrier électronique :
As áreas mais vulneráveis na Europa são sem dúvida a Península Ibérica com os Pirenéus, os Alpes, as Ilhas Mediterrânicas e os Balcãs. A Península Ibérica e Balcânica possuem as mais ricas floras da Europa e “ Polunin & Smythies ” estimaram na altura da publicação do livro que entre 200 e 300 espécies nestas regiões podiam estar na imanência da sua extinção.
Num relatório sobre o estado de conservação da natureza na Espanha [4]  o grupo “Ecologistas en acción” relata que 112 espécies da Flora ibérica estão em perigo de extinção.
No entanto, ao grau de ameaça de extinção para a maioria das plantas raras e endémicas europeias é largamente desconhecido. Não existem estudos demográficos para a maioria destas espécies de plantas vasculares que residem em áreas geográficas isoladas e de pequena extensão. E ao mesmo tempo a protecção e conservação do ambiente está frequentemente mal coordenada devido à acções heterogéneas e descoordenadas pelas autarquias responsáveis para a conservação local da Natureza [5] . O trabalho aqui iniciado pode servir assim para preencher lacunas de conhecimento sobre o estado de conservação das espécies e ao mesmo tempo para um melhoramento de coordenação e comunicação entre autarquias.
No livro de “ Polunin & Smythies ” os locais de um número considerável de espécies raras e ameaçadas é revelado. Isto constitui naturalmente um certo perigo para estas espécies. No entanto, “ Polunin & Smythies ” são optimistas e pensam que os benefícios de focar para a protecção dos locais e das espécies em questão são maiores do que manter esta informação escondida. No entanto, espécies raras ou localmente raras nas regiões descritas, são marcadas com uma cruz que significa o perigo que estas espécies correm de ser extintas.
Sobretudo, eles pensam que a informação dada no livro ajuda às instituições nacionais e internacionais de promover a preservação desta herança valiosa.
Os autores dão as seguintes recomendações aos botânicos e visitantes de regiões com valor botânico como as regiões cobertas no livro:
1. Fotografia é um dos melhores e menos ofensivos métodos de coleccionar as plantas; mas tem de se ter extremo cuidado de não pisar a vegetação à volta destas plantas;
2. Não todas as espécies podem ser identificadas por fotografia; neste caso torna-se inevitável de herborizar as espécies cujas características são quase todas conservadas nos exemplares secas (menos a cor). No entanto, esta herborização deve ser feita apenas se a população de uma espécie não é ameaçada.
3. Deve informar-se pessoas locais sobre as actividades para evitar especulações e para obter informações valiosas sobre uso da flora medicinal local.
4. Não se deve herborizar em zonas protegidas senão explicitamente autorizado pelos serviços dos parques.

[7] Citation from:  Evaluation of the state of nature conservation in Spain (2008). “Competencies for autonomous legislation, and, mainly and more important, for environmental management, where differences and deficits become more and more evident, lie, as we know, on the level of the Autonomous Communities (the regions).
There can hardly be found analogous models of action among the 17 Autonomous Communities and 2 Autonomous Cities into which relapses full responsibility of environmental management of the area. We rather encounter a wide spectrum of types of procedure, administrative structure and endowment of media applied to nature conservation.


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